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Claudio Orizio, Massimiliano Gobbo, Bertrand Diemont, Fabio Esposito and Arsenio Veicsteinas Eur J Appl Physiol (2003) 90 : 326-336.

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The surface mechanomyogram as a tool to describe the influence of fatigue on biceps brachii motor unit activation strategy. Historical basis and novel evidence. Claudio Orizio, Massimiliano Gobbo, Bertrand Diemont, Fabio Esposito and Arsenio Veicsteinas Eur J Appl Physiol (2003) 90 : 326-336.

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slide1

The surface mechanomyogram as a tool to describe the influence of fatigue on biceps brachii motor unit activation strategy. Historical basis and novel evidence

Claudio Orizio, Massimiliano Gobbo, Bertrand Diemont, Fabio Esposito and Arsenio Veicsteinas

Eur J Appl Physiol (2003) 90: 326-336.

surface mmg
Surface MMG
  • MMG records movement of the muscle
  • recruited MUs taking up slack of the resting muscle
  • mirrors the force-generation process
mmg at low firing rates
MMG at Low Firing Rates
  • At low firing rates MMG is a linear sum of the transverse activity of motor units.
mmg recruitment firing rate
MMG – Recruitment & Firing Rate
  • When recruitment and firing rate increase, MMG increases up to the end of MU recruitment.
  • MMG can be used for Motor Unit Activation Strategy.
mmg activation strategy
MMG & Activation Strategy
  • MMG amplitude and frequency can be used to identify the end of recruitment. The muscle continues to generate additional force via increased firing rate (reflected by increased MF).
mmg amplitude at fatigue
MMG Amplitude at Fatigue
  • MMG-RMS increase (low level of effort) may be related to
    • recruitment of new MUs.
    • global MUs firing increment
    • the synchronization and grouping of the active MUs
  • MMG-RMS decrease (high level of effort) may be related to
    • de-recruitment of fast fatiguing MUs
    • the reduction in the MUs FR
    • the prolongation of the mechanical twitch leading to better fusion of the mechanical events
mmg frequency at fatigue
MMG Frequency at Fatigue
  • MMG spectral changes can be explained as
    • high frequency content reduction may reflect prolongation of the single mechanical events
    • reduction of the global MUs FR
    • de-recruitment of fatigued fast twitch MUs
    • synchronization of MUs (resembles increased tremor in force of fatigued muscle).
  • transient increase in the high frequency at some intensities could be due to the increase in MUs firing and/or faster mechanical events (possibly due to the potentiation)
purpose of the study
Purpose of the Study
  • (1) describing the possible changes in the dynamics of EMG and MMG time and frequency domain parameters from low to high intensity of contraction;
  • (2) providing some contribution to the investigation of MUAS in fatigued biceps brachii.
methods emg
Methods -- EMG
  • EMG was detected from the belly of the biceps brachii muscle by means of two silver bars (0.5×1.0 cm) spaced 1 cm apart and 1 cm distally from the motor point.
  • The signal was amplified and filtered (bandwidth: 3–500 Hz).
methods mmg
Methods -- MMG
  • MMG was detected by an accelerometer (Entran EGA 25 D, bandwidth 0–800 Hz, dimensions: 1x0.5x0.5 cm, mass 0.5 g, sensitivity 5 mV/g)
  • Placed between the two silver electrodes and fixed to the skin using double adhesive tape.
  • The MMG signal was then amplified and filtered between 5 and 250 Hz.
  • The force signal (bandwidth: 0–128 Hz), the EMG and the MMG were recorded on computer after analogue-to-digital conversion (sampling rate: 1024 Hz
fatigue protocol
Fatigue Protocol
  • After MVC
  • first 6.75 s ramp
  • followed by the intermittent series of 6 s on + 3 s off 50% MVC contractions.
  • The last contraction was the one in which the pre-fatigue 50% MVC could not be maintained within ± 5% of the target value, for the whole 6 s period. This effort was identified as the new MVC for the subject.
  • Within 3 s a new 6.75 s ramp was administered. The 90% MVC of fatigued muscle corresponded to the 45% MVC of the fresh muscle
signal analysis
Signal Analysis
  • Amplitude (RMS) and frequency (MF) of EMG and MMG.
  • Range from 10-90% MVC was analyzed
  • windows covered the 15–85% MVC range effort with a step of 5%, yielding 15 windows.
  • Each window was centered on a multiple of 5% MVC.
  • STATISTICS: MMG and EMG were log transformed to normalize their distribution.
fatigue effects
Fatigue Effects
  • EMG, MMG and force during the two ramps. The most striking result is the different behaviour of MMG throughout the ramp before and after fatiguing intermittent contractions.
emg amplitude frequency
EMG Amplitude & Frequency
  • Average EMG in fresh and fatigued muscle during 15–85% MVC ramps.
  • EMG–RMS does not present any appreciable differences in the two conditions.
  • In fatigued muscle the EMG–MF trend is shifted about 25 Hz below the pre-fatigue values.
  • The vertical bars show large SDs
slide16
MMG in fresh and fatigued muscle during the 15–85% MVC ramps.
  • MMG–RMS dynamics in fatigued muscle are completely different to those in fresh muscle. They do not increase in the 20–65% MVC range.
  • On the contrary they show a continuous decrease beyond 25% MVC.
  • As for the EMG–MF the MMG–MF trend in fatigued muscle is shifted towards lower values.
  • Beyond 65% MVC the trend of MMG–MF does not present a steep increase when muscle is fatigued.
  • The vertical bars large SDs.
high fr mmg rms decrease
High FR & MMG–RMS decrease
  • MMG–MF seems to be more sensitive to the global MUs FR can be explained by taking into account that the elementary event contributing to MMG, per MU activation, is much longer (about 100 ms) than the MUAP (about 10 ms) contributing to EMG.
  • At the lowest firing frequency of about 10 Hz MMG may be regarded, because of a partial fusion of the single events, as the summation of more or less distorted sinusoids and not as the summation of trains of fast distinct MUAPs, as in the EMG.
  • It can be concluded that the MUs global firing information (10–40 Hz range) may dominate the MMG spectrum
  • while the MUAPs shape information is mainly reflected in the EMG spectrum.
mmg amplitude fatigue
MMG Amplitude & Fatigue
  • The recruitment of new and more superficial MUs as well as the FR increase of the already active MUs in the 15–65% MVC may explain the MMG–RMS increment in the same force range.
  • Beyond 65% MVC the reduction of the MMG–RMS could be attributed to the high FR attained to increase force.
  • The upper limit for the complete recruitment (REC-end) was 65% MVC
rate of force development
Rate of Force Development
  • The production of different force rates may provide REC-end at different % MVC.
  • Akataki et al. (2001), strongly supports the hypothesis that the global MUs firing frequency is reflected in the MMG spectrum.
  • Simultaneous MMG–RMS decrease and the MMG–MF increase in the 65–90% MVC range is new confirmation for the MUAS key point represented by the end of REC and the crucial use of FR increase to attain the highest contraction intensities.
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