Cardiovascular Disease: an Overview. Jon W. Wahrenberger, MD March 10, 2007. The Good News. We are living longer than ever!. So Why Worry about Cardiovascular Disease?. Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer About 42% of all deaths Nationwide: 921,819 annually NH: 3468
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Jon W. Wahrenberger, MD
March 10, 2007
We are living longer than ever!
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Interview Statistics, data from the National Health Interview Survey.
2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)
Life Extending Technology
Public Health Measures
Health adverse behavior
MassMarketing of Junk Food
Suffering, Loss of QOL
We must tackle heart disease at all points!
“Cardiovascular disease” refers to diseases involving the heart and blood vessels
The heart, brain and extremities share a disease process
Susceptibility to atherosclerosisThe Common Thread?
AKA “Arteriosclerosis”, “hardening of the arteries”
Peripheral Vascular Disease
No Symptoms Mild Symptoms Severe SymptomsAtherosclerosis Progression
Time (years to decades)
Right Coronary Artery
Left Coronary Artery
Time = saved heart muscle
Time = saved brain function
Heart Muscle Injury
A wave of electrical discharge proceeds mechanical contraction of the heart.
Valves are intended to allow blood flow in only one direction from one heart chamber to another
Susceptibility to infection
Age Related Degeneration
Framingham Risk Calculator
Trans fats to < 1% of total caloric intake
Cholesterol to < 300 mg per day
Total fat to 25-35% of total caloric intakeTrans Fatty Acids
FDA mandated trans fat food labeling after January 1, 2006
Rx: Recommended Dose – 100 gm per day
Dark Chocolate ≠ Milk Chocolate
Promote formation of nitric oxide (NO)
Reduced coronary heart diseaseAlcohol
Rx: Recommended Dose – 1-2 drinks per day
Total to HDL Ratio
Reduction in oxidative stress markersOlive Oil
Decrease in myocardial infarction
Decrease in stroke
Reduced mortality after MI
Increases coronary flow reserve
Improved endothelial functionGreen Tea