GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. TECHNIQUES AND NORMAL ANATOMY. Luminal Contrast Examinations Barium sulfate suspensions are the preferred material for most examinations.
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The esophagus, stomach, and duodenum are usually examined together as part of the upper gastrointestinal series.
Prone frontal radiograph of stomach and duodenum from a single-contrast upper gastrointestinal examination. The duodenal bulb (D) is attached to the gastric antrum by the pyloric channel.
Supine frontal film of the stomach and duodenum from a double-contrast upper gastrointestinal examination in which a high-density barium suspension and gas crystals (CO2) are used.
(1) peroral small bowel series,
(2) enteroclysis, and
(3) various retrograde techniques.
Large film of the abdomen from an enteroclysis examination of the small intestine. The small bowel is intubated with the tip of the tube (arrow) in the jejunum. Compared to the peroral examination, the small-bowel loops are distended more fully, causing the mucosal folds to assume a transverse orientation.
Compression film of the small-bowel loops in the pelvis with the patient in a prone position. Although the loops are overlapped, the "see-through" effect using a dilute barium suspension permits their clear visualization.
(1) single-contrast barium enema or
(2) double-contrast barium enema.
The large intestine consists of the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, ascending colon, and cecum.
Double-contrast view of the right side of the colon showing the cecum (C), ileocecal junction (J), refluxed terminal ileum (I), and the appendix (arrow). The multiple haustrations of the colon are seen well and are produced by the teniae coli
Endoscopy of the mesenteric portions of the small intestine is called Enteroscopy .
small-bowel bleeding causes: Meckel\'sdiverticulum, Crohn\'s disease, ischemic enteritis, and primary and secondary neoplasms.
Common causes of Colonic bleeding are diverticulosis, idiopathic colitis, larger colonic polyps and carcinoma, and ischemic colitis.
Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo image of the upper abdomen, taken at the level of the midliver, demonstrating homogeneous liver, with interspersed intrahepatic vessels, and spleen.
Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo image of the upper abdomen, taken at the level of the pancreas and kidneys, demonstrating the homogeneous pancreatic body and tail with pancreatic duct (arrow), and the corticomedullary differentiation in the kidneys.
Diseases of the liver, biliary system, and pancreas can be conveniently divided into the following categories to help illustrate the optimal sequences of imaging techniques: diffuse hepatocellular disease, focal hepatic diseases, abdominal trauma, inflammatory disease of the biliary tract, and pancreatic inflammation or neoplasm.
NM techniques can be used to analyze a focal lesion within the liver for possible cavernous hemangioma.