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Regulators and Flowmeters. RET 2274 Respiratory Care Theory 1 Module 3.0. Regulators and Flowmeters. Regulating Gas Pressure and Flow

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Regulators and Flowmeters

RET 2274

Respiratory Care Theory 1

Module 3.0


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Regulating Gas Pressure and Flow

    • Cylinder gases exert too high of a pressure for use with respiratory equipment, and must be reduced to a working pressure of 50 psig (pounds per square inch gauge)

    • This standard pressure can be applied to power devices such as IPPB, pneumatic precursors, ventilators, etc.

    • Reducing valves are used to reduce high pressure to a working pressure


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves

    • Two types

      • Single Stage

      • Multiple Stage

        Available as preset or adjustable


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves

    • Preset Reducing Valve

      • Automatic adjustment of the diaphragm-spring combination keeps the pressure in the high-pressure chamber at a near-constant 50 psig; thus the name preset

        • Refer to Egan’s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care, Eighth Edition for a complete working description


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves

    • Preset Reducing Valve

(A) High-pressure inlet

(B) Pressure gauge

(H) High-Pressure gas inlet

(C) High-pressure chamber

(I) Gas outlet

(G) Valve stem

(E) Flexible diaphragm

(D) Ambient-pressure chamber

(F) Spring


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves

    • Adjustable Reducing Valve

      • Some devices need variable pressures

      • The adjustable reducing valve allows a change in outlet pressure via a threaded hand control attached to the diaphragm

        • Refer to Egan’s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care, Eighth Edition for a complete working description


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • High-Pressure Reducing Valves

    • Multiple-Stage Reducing Valve

      • Can be preset or adjustable

      • Reduces pressure in two or more steps

        • First stage – pressure is lowered to an intermediate level (200 – 700 psig)

        • Second stage – pressure is decreased to working level (50 psig)

        • Provide more precise and smooth flow control


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters

    • Flowmeters are needed to set and control the rate of gas flow to a patient, either from a station outlet or a high-pressure cylinder

    • When using a a high-pressure cylinder as the gas source, a regulator (reducing valve plus flowmeter) is required


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters

    • Three categories of flowmeters

      • Flow restrictor

      • Bourdon gage

      • Thorpe tube


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters

    • Flow restrictor

      • Consists of a fixed orifice calibrated to deliver a specific flow at a constant pressure (50 psig)


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters

    • Fixed Orifice Flowmeter

      • Provide specific flow rate settings by selecting or adjusting an outlet orifice size

      • This unit incorporates a reducing valve and fixed orifice flowmeter


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters

    • Bourdon Gage

      • A flow-metering device that is always used in conjunction with an adjustable pressure reducing valve

      • It is a fixed orifice, variable-pressure, flow metering device


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Bourdon Gage

    • Hollow tube straightens as gas pressure increases – increasing flow through the fixed orifice

    • Will work in any position – ideal for transport


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Bourdon Gage

    • Not back-pressure compensated

    • As resistance to flow increases, the indicated flow reading becomes inaccurate


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Low-Pressure Gas Flowmeters

    • Thorpe Tube

      • Always attached to a 50 psig gas source – either a station outlet or a pressure reducing valve

      • It is a variable orifice, constant-pressure flow-metering device

      • Measures true flow

        • Refer to Egan’s Fundamentals of Respiratory Care, Eighth Edition for a complete working description


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Thorpe Tube

    • Two types

      • Pressure uncompensated vs. Pressure compensated


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Thorpe Tube

    • Pressure uncompensated

      • Uncompensated for backpressure

      • Needle valve is proximal to the Thorpe tube

      • If pressure is applied distally to the tube, e.g., kinked tubing, flow indication may be lower than delivered flow


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Thorpe Tube

    • Pressure compensated

      • Compensated for backpressure

      • Needle valve is distal to the Thorpe tube

      • If pressure is applied distally to the tube, e.g., flow-restricted equipment or kinked tubing, it will have NO effect on the flowmeter’s performance. The float will be an actual reading of flow delivered


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Ranges of Flowmeters

    • High-range

      0 – 75 L/min (5-L/min intervals)

      • CPAP and high-flow oxygen delivery devices


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Ranges of Flowmeters

    • Low-range

      0 – 3 L/min (1/4-L/min intervals)

      • Pediatric and COPD patients


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Ranges of Flowmeters

    • Standard

      0 – 15 L/min (1-L/min interval)

      • Most oxygen delivery devices


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Correctly Reading a Flowmeter

    • Ball-float flowmeter

      • Read from the middle of the ball

6 L/min

2 L/min


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Correctly Reading a Flowmeter

    • Bobbin flowmeter

      • Read from the top of the bobbin

2 L/min


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Mini Clinic – Select the Proper Device

    Problem:

    An RT has an order to transport a patient to radiology with oxygen. What equipment should the therapist select?

    Solution:

Because the RT has to transport a patient using oxygen, they should select an E cylinder with an adjustable regulator that includes a Bourdon gauge (unaffected by gravity)


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Mini Clinic – Select the Proper Device

    Problem:

    An RT has to set up a pneumatically powered ventilator with oxygen in the ambulatory clinic, where there are not oxygen outlets. What equipment should the therapist select?

    Solution:

Because pneumatically powered ventilators require 50 psig and no central oxygen outlets are available, the RT needs a preset reducing valve and a large H cylinder of oxygen.


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Mini Clinic – Select the Proper Device

    Problem:

    An RT has to set up oxygen therapy with a jet nebulizer for a patient in the ICU. What equipment should the RT select?

    Solution:

Because moderns ICUs have central wall outlets for oxygen, The RT needs only select a flowmeter. A compensated Thorpe tube is required for metering flow through high-resistance equipment such as jet nebulizers


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • Select the proper gas cylinder

      • Ensure content of cylinder by checking the label


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • Remove protective covering from cylinder outlet


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • “Crack” the cylinder to remove dust, debris and moisture


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • Select the appropriate gas regulator

      • Ensure that a plastic washer is in place


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • Attach the gas regulator to the cylinder valve

      • It should fit into place easily - DO NOT FORCE IT!!!


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • Tighten the fittings in place


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • Open the cylinder valve SLOWLY and pressurize the regulator, note the amount of gas pressure in tank – listen for leaks

Cylinder Wrenches


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • Set the flowmeter to the prescribed flow rate and attach the oxygen delivery device


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • Place the oxygen delivery device on the patient and monitor vital signs


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Regulators and Flowmeters

  • Attaching a Regulator to a Gas Cylinder

    • Place the oxygen delivery device on the patient and monitor vital signs


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