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Ch. 39: Plant Responses to Internal And External Signals PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Ch. 39: Plant Responses to Internal And External Signals Signal transduction pathways link internal and environmental signals to cellular responses. Example: Plants response to light Once a shoot reaches the sunlight, greening takes place.

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Ch. 39: Plant Responses to Internal And External Signals

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Ch. 39:

Plant Responses to Internal

And External Signals


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  • Signal transduction pathways link internal

  • and environmental signals to cellular

  • responses.

  • Example: Plants response to light

Once a shoot reaches the sunlight, greening

takes place.


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Greening is an example of a signal transduction

pathway.


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  • Plant responses to hormones:

  • A. Discovery: The Early Experiments by

  • Charles Darwin and his son, Francis, and

  • by Peter Boysen-Jensen

Mica:

solid

barrier

Gelatin:

permeable

barrier


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  • Phototropism: growth of a shoot towards

  • light.

  •  The cells on the darker side elongate

  • faster than the cells on the brighter

  • side.


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B. The Went Experiment:

Auxin: Hormone

that causes cell

elongation, which

causes a

curvature.


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  • Plant hormones:

  • Auxins: stimulates stem elongation (only

  • low concentrations), root growth, cell

  • differentiation, and branching, regulates

  • development of fruit, enhances apical

  • dominance, functions in phototropism

  • and gravitropism.

Cell elongation: The acid growth hypothesis


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  • Cytokinins:

  • -Source = roots

  • -Affect root growth and differentiation,

  • stimulate cell division and growth (must be

  • with auxin), stimulate germination, delay

  • senescence (anti-aging), signal axillary

  • buds to grow (counteract auxin).


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  • Gibberellins (over 100 kinds):

  • -Source = meristem of apical buds and

  • roots, young leaves, embryo

  • -Promote seed and bud germination, stem

  • elongation, and leaf growth, stimulate

  • flowering (bolting) and developing of fruit,

  • affect root growth and differentiation.


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  • Abscisic Acid:

  • -Source = Leaves, stems, roots, green fruit

  • -Inhibits growth, closes stomata during

  • water stress, counteracts breaking of

  • dormancy

  •  Many seeds will start to germinate once

  • abscisic acid is removed or inactivated.


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  • Ethylene: gaseous hormone

  • -Source = tissues of ripening fruit, nodes of

  • stems, aging leaves and flowers

  • -Promotes fruit ripening, opposes some

  • auxin effects, promotes or inhibits growth

  • and development of roots, leaves, and

  • flowers, depending on species; also, there is

  • a burst of ethylene during apoptosis.

-Responsible for the “triple

response” in seedlings:

a. Horizontal growth of

seedling if there is an

obstacle (rock) on top

of it.


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-Ethylene causes cell to produce enzymes

that digest the cellulose of cells walls

for leaf abscission. When an autumn leaf

falls, the breaking point is at the abscission

layer.


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  • Brassinosteroids:

  • -Source = seeds, fruits, shoots, leaves, and

  • floral buds

  • -Inhibits root growth, retards leaf abscission,

  • promotes xylem differentiation


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  • Plant response to light

  • A. Photomorphogenesis: the effects of light

  • on plant morphology.

  • B. Blue-light detection due to 3 pigments:

  • cryptochromes, phototropin, zeaxanthin


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  • Circadian rhythms: physiological cycles with

  • a period of 24 hours.

1. Light influences circadian rhythms.


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  • Photoperiodism synchronizes plant

  • responses to changes of season.

In 1920, Garner and Allard termed:

-Short day plants only flower if the light

period is less than a critical length

-Long day plants only flower if the light

period is more than a critical period


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  • In the 1940’s scientists discovered that

  • it is the length of night that controls

  • flowering.

Short day plants only flower when

they have continuous dark periods that

exceed the critical period.

Long day plants only flower when they

have continuous dark periods that do not

exceed the critical period.


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  • Plant response to other environmental stimuli:

  • A. Gravitropism

Corn roots

  • Statoliths: specialized plastids (starch

  • grains) in root cells.


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Gravity pulls the statoliths groundward. This

redistributes calcium, which triggers an

accumulation of auxin. High conc. of auxin

prevents cell elongation  Curvature


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  • Mechanical Stimuli:

  • 1.Thigmomorphogenesis: mechanical stress

  • due to touch.

TouchedUntouched


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  • Thigmotropism: directional growth in

  • response to touch (Ex. Vines and tendrils).


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  • Rapid leaf movements in response to

  • stimulation: Ex. Mimosa plant

A signal travels 1 cm per second by an

electrical impulse (action potential); creates

turgid and flaccid cells.


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  • Plant defense in response to herbivores and

  • pathogens:

  • Herbivores:

  • Chemical defense:

  • a.Canavanine: resembles amino acid,

  • arginine. When eaten by an insect,

  • canavanine is incorporated into the

  • insect’s protein in place of arginine.

  •  Kills insect because canavanine is

  • different enough from arginine to

  • allow for incorrect function of protein.


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  • Leaf destroyed by an herbivore releases

  • parasitoid wasp attractants.


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  • Lima bean plants infested with spider

  • mites will send out chemical signals to

  • neighboring plants to activate their own

  • defense genes.

  • Plant defense against pathogens:

  • 1.Epidermis of plant body

  • 2.Gene-for-gene resistance: avirulent

  • pathogens and plants have a compromise.


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R gene =

codes for receptor that

signals the plant’s

defenses so it can

survive.

  • This compromise

    allows for the

    pathogen and plant

    to survive.


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  • Hypersensitive response and the

  • Systemic acquired resistance:

HR:

-Sealing off of

infected area

-Self destruction

SAR:

-Signal (salicylic

acid) received

from infected

cells


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