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WELCOME. A study on Primary and Secondary Education of Bangladesh. Presented by A.N.S. Habibur Rahman Date : March 10, 2014. The objectives of the study . Review Documents Education policy, Teachers' training curricula, Teachers' training materials,

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A study on

Primary and Secondary Education of Bangladesh

Presented by

A.N.S. HabiburRahman

Date : March 10, 2014

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The objectives of the study

  • Review Documents

    • Education policy,

    • Teachers' training curricula,

    • Teachers' training materials,

    • Teachers' training system and methodology;

  • Identify the relevance of documents to ultimately meet the diverse needs of learners;

  • Identification of teacher’s qualification, skills , gaps and constraints in practicing right based teaching.

  • Assessment

    • Gender equity

    • Human rights

    • Multilingual education

    • Flexibility in the teachers training curriculum

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Facts & Figures

  • Primary school children (6-10): 17 million

    • Net Enrollment: 91%

    • Dropout rate : 40%

  • Government Primary School (GPS): 37,672

    • Enrollment in GPS: 10 million

    • Teacher :about 185000

  • Registered Non-govt. Primary School (RNGPS): 20083

    • Teacher: 77,000

    • Enrollment: 3.5 million

  • Ebtadayi Madrasa (equivalent to Primary): 6726

    • Enrollment : 0.9million Teacher: 29,000

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Facts & Figures (contd.)

  • Kindergarten School: about 3,000

  • NGO-run non-formal learning centres (7-14): 50,000 (Approx)( Mostly One teacher centres)

  • Enrollment in NGO-run non-formal learning centres: 1.5 million

  • Government Secondary School: 317

    • Enrollment : 2,25,000 (Approx)

    • Teacher: 5,500

  • Non-government Secondary School:18200 (Approx)

    • Enrollment 72,00000 (approx)

    • Teacher:226,009 (Approx)

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Primary Teachers’ Training


  • Teachers’ training for the mainstream primary education

    • Course name- Certificate-in-Education (C-in-Ed).

    • Duration- 1 year

    • Under-graduate certificate by Primary Training Institutes (PTIs).

  • 55 government PTIs working throughout the country

  • A non-government PTI offers training to indigenous teachers

  • An NGO (CRP) runs C-in-Ed course on Special Education in a very small scale

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  • Organizational capacity

    • Two shifts simultaneously.

    • Each PTI is supposed to have 12 instructors

    • A Superintendent responsible for overall team

    • Many of the posts are vacant.

  • (NAPE) National Academy for Primary Education

    • Trains the PTI Instructors, officials

    • Conducts PTI examinations and research

    • No effective control to implement the curriculum.

  • PTIs are not informed about the changes in the national primary curriculum and PTI teaching are not updated accordingly.

  • Lack of coordination among Directorate of Primary Education (DPE), NCTB, PTIs and NAPE.

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C-in-Ed Course

  • Theoretical aspects constitute the major part of C-in-Ed Course

  • C-in-Ed is yet to put more importance on ICT.

  • Gender equity is inadequately covered in the curriculum.

  • In practice teaching, too many trainees are engaged in same school which hinders to obtain adequate skills

  • Instructors experienced in one-way communication ,trainees groomed up accordingly

  • Space, contact time and number of learners are not favorable for using teaching aids .

  • No refresher or follow-up after one year course

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PTI Instructors

  • Instructors are recruited with a background of B-Ed and M-Ed. Experience in primary education is not prerequisite.

  • A number of instructors are promoted from experimental schools.

  • Severe shortage of instructors to run one shift, though PTIs run two shifts.

  • Sometimes instructors are assigned to visit few schools for monitoring in the attachments area

  • Instructors have very little scope to visit the trainees during the practice training.

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  • Coordination among DPE, NCTB, PTI and NAPE should be strengthened

  • Trainees should be allowed to take the textbooks after the training is over.

  • Technical support has to be extended for developing materials and preparing and using teaching learning aids.

  • Practice teaching should be half of the total course period for sustainable achievement .

  • Tanning Monitoring should be introduced

  • C-in-Ed Courses on Special Education should be expanded.

  • One year C-in-Ed Course should be reviewed and updated .

  • Mental growth of children should given more emphasize to ensure joyful creative learning.

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  • Materials on music, fine arts and physical education should be available

  • ICT with appropriate facilities should be incorporated within a short time.

  • Best use of of learners’ time requires proper consideration

  • Instructors should receive primary education related induction as a prerequisite of their service.

  • Pre-service training should be introduce under NAPE.

  • Instructors should have firsthand experience on classroom activities before they are supervising practice teaching.

  • Vacant positions instructors in PTIs have to be filled

  • After completion of the course instructors should meet trainees once a year

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Secondary Teachers’ Training

  • B.Ed is the mainstream training course for the secondary school teachers

    • Course : 1 year- Bachelor of Education (B.Ed)

    • Run by the Teachers’ Training Colleges (TTCs) under the National University.

    • Bangladesh Open University runs B.Ed Course with less contact hours

  • There are 14 govt. TTCs, one for female.

  • The govt TTCs have a good number of teachers, well trained both in home and abroad. They also conduct short-term training

  • The management structure of TTCs is akin to that of the degree colleges.

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Secondary Teachers’ Training

  • Private TTCs established in affiliation with the National University, having quality below standard.

  • Private TTCs address the increased need of the huge number of teachers in the country.

  • Private TTCs have less teachers, most of them work on part-time basis and run B.Ed class once in a week

  • A large number of teachers expecting B.Ed training from private TTCs only for payment and scale change

  • Most of the out-campuses of private universities conduct training of very low quality

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The Course - B.Ed

  • Present B.Ed curriculum was developed in 1996

    • Designed with 1200 contact hours

    • Gender issues are addressed to some extent

    • Four discussion sessions on inclusive education

  • The issue of human rights is not properly addressed in the curriculum.

  • Questions are different of the private universities and BOU though, curriculum is the same.

  • Most of the private universities do not have teaching practice, for the trainees; instead they adopt simulation .

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Secondary School Teacher

  • Trainees with 1200 contact hours can use their skills more.

  • Bachelor in Physical Education (B P. Ed) is offered to game teachers. But they are engaged in teaching other subjects.

  • Music, fine arts and crafts subjects are neglected.

  • Most of the secondary schools face shortage of teachers .

  • Inadequate messages on indigenous issues in B-Ed, squeezes ability of teachers to deal with indigenous groups .

  • Low salary and benefits attract teachers to take additional work

  • In many cases, subject-teachers are not recruited ..

  • Presently non govt teachers are recruited by Non-govt. Teacher Registration and Certification Authority (NTRCA)

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  • For one shift, all TTCs should strictly follow the B.Ed curriculum and 1200 contact hours .

  • Public and Private TTCs should be of similar standard.

  • Strong regulatory framework is needed for Out-campus of private universities.

  • A supportive follow-up of B-Ed Course should be introduced.

  • TTCs should review the B.Ed curriculum .

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Recommendations –B.Ed

  • Right-Based Approach should be the focus of B.Ed Course .

  • Teaching Quality Improvement of Secondary Education Project can be mainstreamed for sustainability of achievement.

  • 'Human Rights‘ should be included in Teachers’ training course

  • Universal Human Declaration be available to the instructors and teachers.

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  • Sports, music, fine arts , crafts should get proper emphasis

  • Student teacher ratio should be reduced for enabling trained teachers to use skills in converting classroom into learner-centred.

  • Ethnicity, disability and gender issue should be addressed with due importance

  • Allocation is needed for teaching learning aids .

  • Subject-based teachers should be recruited.

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Other trainings forSecondary Teachers

  • Many teachers participate in some round year trainings offered by different projects, which get lost after phase out

  • The short term trainings include

    • Teaching Quality Improvement (TQI) for 14 days,

    • Continuous Professional Development for 20 days,

    • Subject-based training for 6 days, and

    • Workshops on different issues.

  • These include inadequate gender, inclusive education and other important topics.

  • The present short-term trainings use participatory method and thereby interactive to some extant.

  • TOT is not adequate for Master trainers to disseminate content in large scale training .

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  • Short-term teachers’ trainings should be reviewed to supplement B-ED training.

  • Weeklong refresher training should be introduced to develop skills of teachers with modern concepts of teaching learning.

  • For professional development of teachers visit to schools by trainers at a reasonable intervals.

  • To acquire knowledge on social development issues and pedagogy study need to be commissioned.

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Other FindingsInclusive Education

  • PTI training focuses mainly on meeting the needs of normal students, not the disable children.

  • The concept of inclusiveness is a workshop topic to orient the instructors of PTIs

  • Bangladesh Health and Physiotherapy Institute initiated an equivalent C-in-Ed Course with focus on special education on a small scale .

  • No follow up and support provided to the teachers for solutions to the problem of teaching learning process

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Recommendations- Inclusive

  • School management committee and other stakeholders including teachers and parents should work to create scope and support inclusive education at school level.

  • Comprehensive approach should be undertaken from policy to practice to make the mainstream primary education inclusive.

  • 'Inclusive Education' topic should be included in curriculum

  • Special Education materials should be free of cost or at a low price.

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  • Special education institution should work as resource centres for inclusive education.

  • Negative concepts, text and images in curriculum regarding disabilities ,be replaced by positive messages and information.

  • Subject related to special needs should be included in the curriculum of PTI & TTC.

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Gender centres for inclusive education.

  • Gender parity has been achieved in primary and secondary education, but but teacher training lack gender aspects.

  • Gender equity is not adequately mentioned in training course, materials and methodologies.

  • Materials produced by some NGOs highlighted gender and equity issues.

  • The number of female teachers increased, but attitude of male teachers is not congenial.

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Recommendations- Gender centres for inclusive education.

  • Gender equity should be taken into account during the policy and course development.

  • Topic on 'gender equity' should be included in the Teachers' Training curriculum.

  • All gender biased or insensitive concepts, text and images prevailing in the education

  • curriculum of schools should be replaced with gender sensitive messages and information.

  • Materials produced by some NGOS should be adapted.

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Multilingual Education centres for inclusive education.

  • There is no official arrangement to use ethnic minorities’ mother tongues as instruction of education

  • Education materials are not available in the languages of the minority groups other than in Bangla.

  • Number of teachers coming from minority groups in the mainstream employment process is too small .

  • Some NGOs working in ethnic minority areas introduced multilingual education.

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Recommendations- Multilingual centres for inclusive education.

  • More number of teachers from minority language should be trained and posted.

  • In case of unavailability , recruitment should carefully be made from the sensitive citizens.

  • Materials should be developed in minority languages to help teachers and learners

  • Information on culture and livelihood of the minority groups should be in the curriculum and textbooks.