Introduction to Cloning
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Introduction to Cloning. What is a Clone? Colloquial definition: a copy of an individual Biological definitions: Asexual duplicate of an organism or cell; typically through mitosis/ Clonal expansion Parthenogenetic duplication of an entire organism Monozygotic twins/ Embryo splitting

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Introduction to Cloning

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Introduction to Cloning


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What is a Clone?

Colloquial definition: a copy of an individual

Biological definitions:

  • Asexual duplicate of an organism or cell; typically through mitosis/ Clonal expansion

  • Parthenogenetic duplication of an entire organism

  • Monozygotic twins/ Embryo splitting

  • Molecular cloning and subcloning

  • Vegetative growth


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Why Clone?

Reproductive cloning

  • Asexual reproduction of an entire animal from a single cell's genetic information.

  • Allowed to come to term

  • For infertility or resurrection of endangered species.

  • For in vitro manipulation of livestock

  • For selection of traits of livestock

  • Study imprinting

  • Study cancer

  • Study embryology and development/ cellular genomics

    Therapeutic cloning

    • Broad use of the word “cloning”.

    • Not used to create an entirely new individual. (Never implanted)

    • Used to create stem cells for tissue engineering to treat anything from neurodegenerative disease to organ transplantation without rejection.

    • Gene therapy


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    Parthenogenesis

    “Virgin Birth”

    • New Mexico Whiptail is all female species

    • Derived from female Western and male Striped Whiptail

    • Unfertilized eggs yield clones

    Pseudocopulation

    no exchange of genetic material

    progesterone

    estrogen

    Unfertilized eggs

    Clones of the mother


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    Early attempts at vertebrate cloning by Hans Spemann (1920s)

    By John Gurdon (1960s)

    Embryo Splitting

    Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    UV

    irradiate

    nucleus

    Frog blastula

    Intestine, heart, skin cells

    Injection to enucleated oocytes

    Injection into enucleated oocytes

    Small percentage survive


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    Adult Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Ablation of nucleus from polar body

    Morula or Blastocyst

    implanted into Uterus

    G0 udder cells

    Cell fusion

    and

    activation


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    Dolly

    • Cells derived from a 6 year old Finnish Dorset ewe (white faced)

    • Implanted into Black-face surrogates

    • 277 cell fusions with 29 viable embryos

    • Dolly developed arthritis and lung cancer at the age of 6

    • Finnish Dorset ewes live 11-12 years

    • Dolly was euthanized at half her breed's expected life-span


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    Proliferation of cloned mammals

    mouse, cow, gaur, mule, cat

    Noah, the gaur

    • First attempt to revive endangered species

    • Cloned from a gaur skin nucleus

    • Into enucleated cow oocyte

    • Died 48 hours after birth from respiratory issues

    Cc, the tabby cat

    • Cloned from Rainbow, a calico cat

    • Superficially nonidentical

    • Genotyping reveals genetic identity with Rainbow

    Cloned by Genetic Savings & Clone

    Cloned by Advanced Cell Technology


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    Cloning problems

    • Expensive

    • Low yield/ success rate

    • Shortened life-span

    • Cloned calves die young and are often large

    • Abnormal gene expression found in cloned mice

    • Sperm imprinting cannot be studied


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    Chromatin Transfer

    Detergent

    permeabilizes membrane

    Chromosome

    Condensation

    Impermeable

    cell

    Fusion to

    enucleated

    oocyte

    Cloned by Genetic Savings & Clone


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    Human Cloning

    Non implanted somatic cell nuclear transfer clone for stem cells in South Korea.

    Limited therapeutic cloning licenses to establish stem cells in UK.

    Cloning from disease patients (diabetes, Parkinson's, etc.) being sought out at Harvard


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    From Rael.org and Clonaid.com

    The Raelian Revolution, the world's largest Atheist, non-profit UFO related organisation - over 60,000 members in 90 countries - working towards the first embassy to welcome people from space... destroying the myth of god and sweeping the world with the most politically incorrect and fearlessly individualistic philosophy of non-conformism.

    CLONAID™ ,the first human cloning company in the world, was founded in February 1997, by RAËL and a group of investors who created the Valiant Venture Ltd Corporation based in the Bahamas.

    Thousands of families have contacted Clonaid in the last couple of years in the hope to see a later born twin of their deceased family member be born again. Many of those families are families of celebrities, business leaders and political leaders - we are currently working on the case of a prime minister whose son has been killed.

    Since March 1st, 30 human clones have been implanted, 23 pregnancies are under way.

    13 cloned babies are now alive thanks to our dedicated team of doctors and scientists. They are all healthy and no problem has been found in any one of them that could be attributed to their mode of conception.

    The 8 babies born in February and March of this year are located in Australia, Mexico ( 2 of them), Brazil, Spain, Italy, England and Hong Kong,(sic)


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