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Chapter 1. Introducing Hardware. You Will Learn…. That a computer requires both hardware and software to work About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices. Hardware Needs Software.

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Chapter 1 l.jpg

Chapter 1

Introducing Hardware


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You Will Learn…

  • That a computer requires both hardware and software to work

  • About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer

  • How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices




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Communication Between Hardware and Software

  • Binary number system

  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

  • Hexadecimal notation (hex)




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PC Hardware Components

  • Input/output

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Electrical supply

  • Communication


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Elements Required for Hardware Devices to Operate

  • Method for the CPU to communicate with the device

  • Software to instruct and control the device

  • Electricity to power the device


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Hardware Used forInput and Output

  • Most resides outside computer case

  • Communicates through a port or a wireless connection





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Hardware Inside the Computer Case

  • Motherboard (CPU, memory)

  • Permanent storage (floppy, hard, CD-ROM drives)

  • Power supply

  • Circuit boards

  • Cables



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The Motherboard

  • Largest and most important circuit board

  • Contains the CPU, with which all devices must communicate



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Ports Provided by Motherboard to Outside of Case

  • Serial

  • Parallel

  • USB

  • Game

  • Keyboard

  • Mouse



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Major Components of Motherboards

  • For processing

    • CPU (performs most actual data processing)

    • Chip set (supports CPU by controlling system board activities)

  • For temporary storage

    • RAM

continued…


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Major Components of Motherboards

  • To allow CPU to communicate with other devices

    • Traces or wires

    • Expansion slots

    • System clock

  • Electrical system

    • Power supply connections

  • Programming and setup data

    • Flash ROM

    • CMOS setup chip




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Storage Devices

  • Primary storage (temporary)

    • Temporarily holds data and instructions as CPU processes them

    • Also called memory or RAM

  • Secondary storage (permanent)



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Primary Storage

  • RAM storage

    • SIMMs (single inline memory modules)

    • DIMMs (dual inline memory modules)

    • RIMMs (manufactured by Rambus)





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Secondary Storage Devices

  • Hard disks

  • Floppy disks

  • Zip drives

  • CD-ROMs

  • DVDs



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Hard Drive

  • Most use EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) technology, which can accommodate up to four IEDE devices on one system









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Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices

  • Bus

  • System clock

  • Expansion slots

    • PCI: High-speed input/output devices

    • AGP: Video card

    • ISA: Older and/or slower devices




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System Clock

  • Synchronizes activity on the motherboard

  • Controls pace of activity by sending continuous pulses over the bus that different components use





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Interface (Expansion) Cards

  • Enable CPU to connect to external devices or to a network

  • Determine function by looking at the end of the card that fits against back of computer case





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The Electrical System

  • Power supply (most important component)

    • Provides power for the computer

      • Receives 110-120 volts AC and converts it to lower DC voltage that the computer can handle

    • Runs a fan to help cool inside of computer case





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Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard

  • Provide rudimentary information about setup of computer

  • Start computer

  • Search for an OS

  • Stored on special ROM chips:

    • By setting physical switches on the board (jumpers and DIP switches)

    • Using CMOS configuration chips


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ROM BIOS Chips

  • Hybrid of hardware and software with embedded programming

  • Called firmware







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Chapter Summary

  • Hardware used for input and output

  • Hardware inside the computer case

  • The motherboard, CPU, and chip set

  • Storage devices

  • Motherboard components used for communication among devices

continued…


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Chapter Summary

  • Interface (expansion) cards

  • The electrical system

  • Instructions and data stored on the motherboard


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