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Chapter 1. Introducing Hardware. You Will Learn…. That a computer requires both hardware and software to work About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices. Hardware Needs Software.

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Chapter 1

Introducing Hardware

You Will Learn…

  • That a computer requires both hardware and software to work

  • About the many different hardware components inside and connected to a computer

  • How the CPU works and how it communicates with other devices

Hardware Needs Software

Primary Functions of Hardware

Communication Between Hardware and Software

  • Binary number system

  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

  • Hexadecimal notation (hex)

Binary Code


PC Hardware Components

  • Input/output

  • Processing

  • Storage

  • Electrical supply

  • Communication

Elements Required for Hardware Devices to Operate

  • Method for the CPU to communicate with the device

  • Software to instruct and control the device

  • Electricity to power the device

Hardware Used forInput and Output

  • Most resides outside computer case

  • Communicates through a port or a wireless connection

Port Connections for I/O Devices

Most Popular Input Devices

Most Popular Output Devices

Hardware Inside the Computer Case

  • Motherboard (CPU, memory)

  • Permanent storage (floppy, hard, CD-ROM drives)

  • Power supply

  • Circuit boards

  • Cables

Inside the Computer Case

The Motherboard

  • Largest and most important circuit board

  • Contains the CPU, with which all devices must communicate

The Motherboard

Ports Provided by Motherboard to Outside of Case

  • Serial

  • Parallel

  • USB

  • Game

  • Keyboard

  • Mouse

Ports Provided by Motherboard to Outside of Case

Major Components of Motherboards

  • For processing

    • CPU (performs most actual data processing)

    • Chip set (supports CPU by controlling system board activities)

  • For temporary storage

    • RAM


Major Components of Motherboards

  • To allow CPU to communicate with other devices

    • Traces or wires

    • Expansion slots

    • System clock

  • Electrical system

    • Power supply connections

  • Programming and setup data

    • Flash ROM

    • CMOS setup chip


The Chip Set

Storage Devices

  • Primary storage (temporary)

    • Temporarily holds data and instructions as CPU processes them

    • Also called memory or RAM

  • Secondary storage (permanent)

Primary and Secondary Storage

Primary Storage

  • RAM storage

    • SIMMs (single inline memory modules)

    • DIMMs (dual inline memory modules)

    • RIMMs (manufactured by Rambus)

RAM Chips

Types of RAM Modules

How Much Memory Is Installed

Secondary Storage Devices

  • Hard disks

  • Floppy disks

  • Zip drives

  • CD-ROMs

  • DVDs

Hard Drives

Hard Drive

  • Most use EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) technology, which can accommodate up to four IEDE devices on one system

Hard Drive

Hard Drive

Hard Drive

Hard Drive

Floppy Drive

Floppy Drive

CD-ROM Drive

Motherboard Components Used for Communication Among Devices

  • Bus

  • System clock

  • Expansion slots

    • PCI: High-speed input/output devices

    • AGP: Video card

    • ISA: Older and/or slower devices

Bus Lines

Data Bus

System Clock

  • Synchronizes activity on the motherboard

  • Controls pace of activity by sending continuous pulses over the bus that different components use

System Clock

Expansion Slots

Expansion Slots

Interface (Expansion) Cards

  • Enable CPU to connect to external devices or to a network

  • Determine function by looking at the end of the card that fits against back of computer case

Expansion Cards

Expansion Cards

Identifying Expansion Cards

The Electrical System

  • Power supply (most important component)

    • Provides power for the computer

      • Receives 110-120 volts AC and converts it to lower DC voltage that the computer can handle

    • Runs a fan to help cool inside of computer case

Power Supply

Power Supply

Power Supply

Instructions and Data Stored on the Motherboard

  • Provide rudimentary information about setup of computer

  • Start computer

  • Search for an OS

  • Stored on special ROM chips:

    • By setting physical switches on the board (jumpers and DIP switches)

    • Using CMOS configuration chips


  • Hybrid of hardware and software with embedded programming

  • Called firmware



CMOS Configuration Chips


DIP Switches

Chapter Summary

  • Hardware used for input and output

  • Hardware inside the computer case

  • The motherboard, CPU, and chip set

  • Storage devices

  • Motherboard components used for communication among devices


Chapter Summary

  • Interface (expansion) cards

  • The electrical system

  • Instructions and data stored on the motherboard

  • Login