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1. Earth and Space Science Part 3 Abney Elementary
Mrs. Delaup/Ms. Martinez
2. The Earth is always changing.
3. Some of these changes are gradual (slow) and some are rapid.
4. Weathering and erosion are considered gradual changes.
5. Weathering takes place as rocks are broken down into progressively smaller pieces by the effects of weather. These pieces do not move to a new location, they simply break down, but remain next to one another.
6. Erosion is the movement of rock particles by water and wind. This often happens when waves break on a beach; water carries sand and other sediments as it flows back into the ocean. Erosion along a shore causes beaches to become smaller.
7. Waves also deposit or drop sediments near the shore. This is called deposition.
8. Weathering and erosion of rock materials in Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico.
9. Sand is a product of erosion. Huge dunes have accumulated in Colorado.
10. Sand carried by wind can blast through walls of rock forming these arches in Utah.
11. A deep V shaped river valley is cut into volcanic rocks in Yellowstone National Park.
12. Human activities, such as reducing forest cover and intensive farming have also changed the Earthís surface.
13. The Earth changes rapidly when hurricanes, volcanoes, and earthquakes occur.
14. Strong gusty winds blowing over and area of many square miles can cause a group of very large waves called a storm surge to form. Storm surges often occur during hurricanes and can cause a lot of damage along a shore. (Erosion)
15. A volcano is a mountain that forms when red-hot melted rock flows through a crack onto the Earthís surface.
16. Volcanoes form when two plates collide, when two plates separate, or when plates move over hot spots in the mantle.
17. Melted rock inside Earth surface is called magma.
18. Melted rock that reaches Earthís surface is called lava.
19. The magma flows onto the surface through a rocky opening called a vent to form volcanic mountains.
20. The Earth changes when volcanoes produce new ocean floor where plates are moving apart. Volcanic mountains add to the continental crust when they form on land. They also enrich the soil.
21. Volcanoes can also be harmful. Lava and ash often kill everything in their path. Gases from the eruption can also be dangerous.
22. An Earthquake is a vibration or shaking of Earthís crust.
23. Earthquakes usually occur along faults.
24. A fault is a break in the crust along which rock moves. Rock on either side of a fault can move up and down, side to side, or both.
25. Earthís crust and upper mantle are broken into continent sized slabs called plates. Plates move very slowly across Earthís surface. (A few centimeters a year)
26. Plates can move toward each other, past each other, or away from each other.
27. Volcanoes or mountains can occur at places where plates come together.
28. The island country of Iceland is the top of an underwater mountain that formed as ocean plates moved apart.
29. Many earthquakes happen when plates are moving past each other. This occurs from the buildup and sudden release of energy in rocks.
30. The fault in California along which dozens of major earthquakes have occurred is called the San Andreas Fault.
31. Earthquakes can affect the Earth by causing tsunamis and mudslides as well as changes the Earthís crust.
32. The End ?