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# Artificial Intelligence II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Artificial Intelligence II Shyh-Kang Jeng Department of Electrical Engineering/ Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering National Taiwan University Production System Common characteristics of reasoning problems Major components A collection of states A collection of productions

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### Artificial Intelligence II

Shyh-Kang Jeng

Department of Electrical Engineering/

National Taiwan University

• Common characteristics of reasoning problems

• Major components

• A collection of states

• A collection of productions

• A control system

Portion of the 8-Puzzle’s State Graph

• Playing games of chess

• Drawing logical conclusions from given facts

• Control system

• Searches the state graph to find a path from the start node to the goal

• A strategy is to build a search tree

• Root: start state

• Children: states reachable by applying one production

• Walking up the tree from the goal

Top of stack

Move the 5 tile down

Move the 3 tile right

Move the 2 tile up

Move the 5 tile left

Move the 6 tile up

• Depth-first search

• Heuristics

• A quantitative measure to determine which state is closest to the goal

Heuristics: 7 (sum of distances)

Output

Actual

Output

Inputs

Using Error

Back Propagation Network

• Apply our knowledge of natural evolution to problem-solving

• Algorithm

• Represent potential solutions as strings of symbols

• A collection of potential solutions is generated and tested

• The better examples from the collection are crossed to form a new generation of potential solutions

• Language processing

• Robotics

• Database systems

• Expert systems