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Artificial Intelligence II Shyh-Kang Jeng Department of Electrical Engineering/ Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering National Taiwan University Production System Common characteristics of reasoning problems Major components A collection of states A collection of productions

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Artificial intelligence ii l.jpg

Artificial Intelligence II

Shyh-Kang Jeng

Department of Electrical Engineering/

Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering

National Taiwan University


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Production System

  • Common characteristics of reasoning problems

  • Major components

    • A collection of states

    • A collection of productions

    • A control system


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Portion of the 8-Puzzle’s State Graph


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Applications of Production System Framework

  • Playing games of chess

  • Drawing logical conclusions from given facts



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Search Trees

  • Control system

    • Searches the state graph to find a path from the start node to the goal

  • A strategy is to build a search tree

    • Root: start state

    • Children: states reachable by applying one production

    • Walking up the tree from the goal




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Productions Stack

Top of stack

Move the 5 tile down

Move the 3 tile right

Move the 2 tile up

Move the 5 tile left

Move the 6 tile up


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Tree-Searching Strategies

  • Breadth-first search

  • Depth-first search

  • Heuristics

    • A quantitative measure to determine which state is closest to the goal


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An Unsolved 8-Puzzle

Heuristics: 7 (sum of distances)

















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Desired

Output

Actual

Output

Inputs

Adjusting Weights

Using Error

Back Propagation Network


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Genetic Algorithms

  • Apply our knowledge of natural evolution to problem-solving

  • Algorithm

    • Represent potential solutions as strings of symbols

    • A collection of potential solutions is generated and tested

    • The better examples from the collection are crossed to form a new generation of potential solutions





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Applications of Artificial Intelligence

  • Language processing

  • Robotics

  • Database systems

  • Expert systems



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