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Colombia. A primer (with some emphasis on foreign policy) Daniel Gomez Gaviria. Geography . Borders with Panama, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador. Coast over the Pacific and the Caribbean. . Geography. Fragmented territory. Poor infrastructure. Deep jungles. Weather.

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Colombia

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Colombia l.jpg
Colombia

A primer

(with some emphasis

on foreign policy)

Daniel Gomez Gaviria


Geography l.jpg
Geography

  • Borders with Panama, Venezuela, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador.

  • Coast over the Pacific and the Caribbean.


Geography3 l.jpg
Geography

  • Fragmented territory.

  • Poor infrastructure.

  • Deep jungles.





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Politics

  • Two main parties dominated most of the past century: liberal, conservative.

  • National Front: alternation of power.

  • Constitutional assembly of 1991 and new Constitution.

  • Now: fragmented parties, new parties, many independents.



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Recent History

  • Jorge Eliecer Gaitan,La Violencia (1950s)

  • El Frente Nacional (1958-1974)

  • The Guerrilla movements: FARC (1964), ELN(1965), EPL(1967), M-19 (1974), Quintin Lame (1984).

  • Import Substitution, Protectionism, smuggling routes (1960s).

  • The Drug trade (1970s, mariguana; 1980s, cocaine)

  • Paramilitaries, AUC(1990s)


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Recent History 2

  • War on Drugs (1986-1994)

  • Constitution of 1991

  • Trade liberalization of the 1990s

  • Failed peace process (1998-2002) and Plan Colombia. Colombia, a failed state?

  • Alvaro Uribe (2002-2006, 2006-2010, 2010-2014?): many violence and economic indicators improve.

  • Paramilitary scandal (2006-2007)



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Main Foreign Policy Challenges

  • Human Rights; labor rights.

  • Relationship with Neighbors.

  • FTAs and diversification of trade partners.

  • War on Drugs, internal conflict and US military Aid.

  • Domestic issues are tightly linked to foreign relations.


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