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Ocean and Wave Power. Adam Henry Wesley Chicago Kent College of Law [email protected] [email protected] May, 2007. Ocean and Wave Power. Why Ocean and Wave Power? Technological Feasibility Cost competitiveness (measured against fossil fuels). Advantages of Offshore Ocean Wave Power.

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Ocean and Wave Power

Adam Henry Wesley

Chicago Kent College of Law

[email protected]

[email protected]

May, 2007


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Ocean and Wave Power

  • Why Ocean and Wave Power?

  • Technological Feasibility

  • Cost competitiveness (measured against fossil fuels)


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Advantages of Offshore Ocean Wave Power

  • Clean renewable source of energy

  • Nearly unlimited

  • More Predictable than wind and sun

  • Little environmental impact

  • Not visible from shore

  • Proximity to markets needing electricity


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World Coastal Population

  • 50% of the world's population currently live within sixty kilometers of the coast

  • By 2008, the world population will exceed 6.7 billion people

  • 3.4 billion living on coast


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Potential World-Wide Wave Energy

  • IEA (International Energy Agency) estimates that wave energy can supply between 10 and 50% of world demand

  • World demand of 15,000 TWh


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World Energy Council Estimates

  • 2 terawatts of clean and accessible ocean energy

  • Equivalent to twice the world’s current electricity generation


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World Energy Council 2001 Survey estimates

  • 2 TW of exploitable wave power worldwide

  • 50% of the total European power consumption could be generated from European coastal waters


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Independent market assessment of wave energy economic contribution to electricity market

  • Estimated 2,000 TWh/year

  • 10% of world electricity consumption

  • Equal to current world-wide large scale hydroelectric projects


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U.S. Coastal Population Trends contribution to electricity market

  • 17% of U.S. land is home to more than half of the nation's population.

  • 53 % of U.S population, (153 million people) lived on the U.S. coast. In 2003

  • A 28% increase (33 million people)since 1980.


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U.S. Coastal Population Trends contribution to electricity market

  • in 2003, 23 of the 25 most densely populated counties were coastal

  • By the year 2008, coastal county population is expected to increase by approximately 7 million


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U.S Coastal Estimates contribution to electricity market

  • 2,300 Terawatt-hours per year or;

  • $80.5 billion annually


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California Energy Commission Estimates contribution to electricity market

  • California’s 1,100-mile coastline could generate:

    • seven to 17 megawatts a mile,

    • enough power per mile to serve 13,000 homes

  • Several hundred square miles off the California coast could supply all the homes in the state.


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Technological Maturity contribution to electricity market

  • Systems past proof of concept, deployed, and grid connected

    • AquaBuOY

    • Archimedes Wave Swing

    • Pelamis

    • Wave Dragon


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Proving Grounds contribution to electricity market

  • European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in Orkney

  • Established to commercialize marine energy

  • National Grid Connection

    • Wave and tidal energy converters are connected via seabed cables running from open-water test berths


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Based at Stromness in Orkney contribution to electricity market


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AquaBuOY contribution to electricity market


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Finavera Renewables CEO outlines ‘huge potential’ of ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

“My message to you today is simple: Ocean renewable energy’s time has come. This is not pie in the sky. We have three wave energy projects under development in California, Oregon, and Washington, and we are in discussions about others. These are not just paper projects. We are literally weeks away from issuing contracts that will put US steelworkers to work constructing our prototype wave energy buoy, which we are going to install off the coast of Newport, Oregon this summer.”


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Finavera Renewables AquaBuOY ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • 1MW pilot plant in Makah Bay, Washington State, USA

  • 100MW staged power project in Portugal

  • 20MW staged project in South Africa

  • Pilot project in BC, Canada


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U.S. Projects ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Finavera Renewables Makah Bay, Washington State

  • 1 MW demonstration plant.

  • 1500 MWh/year expected generation

  • Powering 150 homes a year


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Archimedes Wave Swing or “AWS” ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee AWS Ocean Energy


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Device Specifications ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Each AWS:

    • 800 ton 39 x 98 foot cylinder

    • tethered to the seabed by cables 20 feet below the surface of the sea


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How it works ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • The AWS wave energy converter is a cylinder shaped buoy

  • Moored to the seabed

  • Passing waves move an air-filled upper casing against a lower fixed cylinder

  • The up and down movement converted into electricity


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wave power station ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee


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Utility Scale Power Generation? ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Continuous average output of up to 1MW in a rough sea (Northern Atlantic)

  • Power output similar to one large wind turbine

  • A 50MW farm will occupy 3 nautical miles long by 2 cables wide.

  • Enough electricity for 25,000 homes.


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Utility Level Power ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Each AWS unit is currently rated at 1.2 Megawatts

  • Power approximately 2,000 households

  • 50 AWS units would produce utility scale power in a small footprint

  • 1/3 the area required by current wind and solar


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Utility Scale Power ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • AWS plans to create a 100-machine wave park at a cost of £250 million

  • Power production should exceed 100 MW


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How long before utility scale deployment? ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • First AWS machine will be installed in Orkney in 2007

  • First mini wave farm of Scottish waters by 2010

  • Expanding within 12 months to 20 units


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Requirements for a ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committeewave farm

  • Exposure to ocean swells,

  • Water depth of 80-90m

  • Near commercial shipping lanes

  • Industrial port within 12 sailing hours

  • Sea-bed where power cables can be laid to shore


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Advantages ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Not visible (sub surface)

  • Durability (one moving part)

  • No or minimal environmental damage

  • Scalability (limited only by suitable conditions)


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Advantages ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Units can be installed in close proximity land to reduce:

    • the cost of installation,

    • maintenance and

    • power loss in the underwater cable to grid


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Pelamis Wave Generator Power System ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee(Ocean Power Delivery)


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Ocean Power Delivery (Pelamis) ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Pelamis has a similar output to a modern wind turbine

  • Full-scale prototype is operational

  • Tested at the European Marine Energy Centre in Orkney.

  • A typical 30MW installation would occupy a square kilometer of ocean and provide sufficient electricity for 20,000 homes

  • Twenty farms could power a city such as Edinburgh


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Large Pelamis Projects ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • World's biggest commercial wave project (Coast of Scotland)

  • Four Pelamis machines

  • Deployment next 12 months.


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Utility Scale Power? ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • The Orkney wave farm will generate three megawatts of electricity

  • Will power about 3,000 homes


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Pelamis Offshore Wave Energy in Portugal ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • 28 wave power devices will be installed in Portugal within a year

  • Generating 22.5 megawatts of electricity

  • The project is supported by state run power company Energias de Portugal.


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Competitive Price Requirements ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee(wave power level of 15 kw per meter)


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Ocean Power Technologies ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

PowerBuoy® systems


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How it works ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • The PowerBuoy is based on modular, ocean-going buoys

  • The PowerBuoy™ is mounted on the sea bottom using anchoring system

  • Ocean tested for nearly a decade.


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Completed Testing ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • PowerBuoy™ in operation in Hawaii

  • PowerBuoy™ off the coast of New Jersey


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U.S. Deployment ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional CommitteeWave Park Douglas County Reedsport, Oregon

  • As part of the initial program, OPT expects to install its ocean-tested PowerBuoy® systems initially generating a total of 2 MW

  • 2.5 miles off the coast at a depth of 50 meters

  • Preliminary permit by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for up to 50 MW system


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Utility Scale Deployment ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Petitioning the state of New Jersey for permission to install a 100 MW PowerBuoy™ plant off the coast of Atlantic City, New Jersey


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Ocean Wave Generating Costs ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • The total operating cost of generating power from an OPT wave power station including maintenance and operating expenses, as well as the amortized capital cost of the equipment:

  • projected (US) 3-4¢/ kWh for 100MW

  • (US) 7-10¢/kWh for 1MW plants,.


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Funding ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Large government backed utility scale projects coming online

  • Portugal

  • Scotland

  • UK


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Wave Dragon ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee


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Operating Principle ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee


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Wave Dragon ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Floating, slack-moored energy converter of the overtopping type

  • Deployed in a single unit or in arrays

  • Power plant capacity comparable to traditional fossil based power plants.


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Utility Level Power ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • 4 MW when deployed in a relatively low-energy (24 kW/m) wave climate

  • 7 MW when deployed in a 36 kW/m climate


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Advantages ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • Combines existing, mature offshore and hydro turbine technology in a novel way

  • Freely up-scaled

  • Maintenance can be carried out at sea leading to low O&M cost relatively to other concepts

  • Most tested offshore Wave Energy Converter (WEC) technology in the world


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Deployment ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • The prototype activities has established the necessary knowledge to deploy a full-scale Wave Dragon in 2007


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Large Scale Deployments ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee

  • 50 MW wave farm Portugal

  • Awarded a major R&D contract with the European Commission (Multi-MW Unit)


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Economic Viability ocean wave energy in address to United States Congressional Committee


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Government Backing two decades

  • Several countries have either installed or are about to install full-scale prototypes

  • Funds in excess of 70 million euros have been committed to these installations


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Government Projections two decades

  • The Scottish Executive's Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland (FREDS) Marine Energy Group report:

  • potential for 7000 jobs in marine energy by 2020,

  • 10% of Scotland's electricity being supplied by marine energy

  • supplying more than 100MW per annum to export markets

  • (see:http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business Industry/infrastructure/19185/20368).


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Compelling arguments for investing in offshore wave energy technology.

  • Environmentally benign ways to generate electricity

  • Little or no (NIMBY) issues that plague many energy infrastructure projects

    • Wave energy devices are generally not visible from shore

  • Wave energy is more predictable than solar and wind energy

  • High power density

    • (Solar and wind energy is concentrated into ocean waves)

    • easier and cheaper to harvest


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Risks and Drawbacks technology.

  • While wave energy is renewable and nonpolluting, it does raise environmental and safety issues. These include:

  • 1. disturbance or destruction of marine life, including changes in the distribution and types of marine life near the shore;

  • 2. possible threat to navigation from collisions due to the low profile of the wave energy devices above the water, making them undetectable either by direct sighting or by radar;

  • 3. interference with mooring and anchorage lines with commercial and sport-fishing; and

  • 4. degradation of ocean front views by wave energy devices located near or on the shore, and from onshore overhead electric transmission lines.


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