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Chapter 2. Computer Hardware. Chapter Contents. Section A: Personal Computer Basics Section B: Microprocessors and Memory Section C: Storage Devices Section D: Input and Output Devices Section E: Hardware Security. Personal Computer Systems. So, where does the actual computing happen?.

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Chapter 2

Computer Hardware


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Chapter Contents

  • Section A: Personal Computer Basics

  • Section B: Microprocessors and Memory

  • Section C: Storage Devices

  • Section D: Input and Output Devices

  • Section E: Hardware Security

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Personal Computer Systems

So, where does the actual computing happen?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Desktop and Portable Computers

  • The term form factor refers to the size and dimensions of a component, such as a system board or system unit

  • A desktop computer fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outlet

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Desktop and Portable Computers

  • A portable computer is a small, lightweight personal computer

  • A notebook computer (also referred to as a laptop), is a small, lightweight portable computer that opens like a clamshell to reveal a screen and keyboard

  • A tablet computer is a portable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad

  • An ultra-mobile PC (UMPC) is a small form factor tablet computer designed to run most of the software available for larger portable computers

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Desktop and Portable Computers

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Microprocessors and Memory

  • Microprocessor Basics

  • Today’s Microprocessors

  • Random Access Memory

  • Read-only Memory

  • EEPROM

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Microprocessor Basics

  • A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions

    • ALU

    • Registers

    • Control unit

    • Instruction set

Pin Grid

Array (PGA)

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Microprocessor Basics

  • Front side bus

    • HyperTransport

  • Microprocessor clock

    • Megahertz

    • Gigahertz

  • Word size

  • Cache

    • Level 1 cache (L1)

    • Level 2 cache (L2)

  • CISC vs. RISCtechnology

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Microprocessor Basics

  • Serial processing

    • Pipelining

  • Parallel processing

  • Dual core processor

  • Hyper-Threading Technology

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Today’s Microprocessors

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Techno-speak

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Random Access Memory

  • Random Access Memory is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Random Access Memory

  • Microscopic capacitors hold the bits that represent data

  • Most RAM is volatile

    • Requires electrical power to hold data

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Random Access Memory

  • RAM capacity is expressed in megabytes or gigabytes

  • Personal computers typically feature between 256MB and 2GB of RAM

  • An area of the hard disk, called virtual memory, can be used if an application runs out of allocated RAM

Consequence of too little??

too much??

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Random Access Memory

  • RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds (8ns v. 10ns) or megahertz

  • SDRAM is fast and relatively inexpensive

    • DDR/DDR2 (double data rate)

  • RDRAM is more expensive, and usually found in high-performance workstations

DIMM

DDR2 DIMM

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Read-Only Memory

  • ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s startup routine

    • Permanent and non-volatile

    • Programmable only once , “hard-wired”

  • The ROM BIOS tells the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM, etc.

    • BIOS: Basis Input/Output System

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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EEPROM

  • Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

  • More permanent than RAM, and less permanent than ROM

  • Requires no power to hold data

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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F

Memory – Quick Quiz

  • T / F RAM is a form of permanent storage used by personal computers.

  • RAM capacity capable of storing ~ 1,000 million characters would be expressed as _________ of RAM.

  • If your computer manufacturer advertises that you to can keep your computer’s BIOS up to date by downloading and installing revisions/updates, the BIOS for your computes is probably stored on a/an ________ device.

1 GigaByte

EEPROM

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Storage Devices

  • Storage Basics

  • Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology

  • CD and DVD Technology

  • Solid State Storage

  • Storage Wrap-up

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Storage Basics

  • A storage medium contains data

  • A storage device recordsdata and retrieves data on a storage medium

    • Data gets copied from a storage device into RAM, where it waits to be processed

    • Processed data is held temporarily in RAM before it is copied to a storage medium

    • Access times typically measured in milliseconds

      • recall RAM access times in nanoseconds

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology

  • Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface

Durability?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology

Hard disk platters and read-write heads are sealed inside the drive case or cartridge to screen out dust and other contaminants.

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology

  • A controller positions the disk and read-write heads to locate data

    • SATA

    • Ultra ATA

    • EIDE

    • SCSI

  • Not as durable as many other storage technologies

    • Head crash!

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology

  • A floppy disk is a round piece of flexible Mylar plastic covered with a thin layer of magnetic oxide and sealed inside a protective casing

  • A tape drive is a device that reads data from and writes data to a long stream of recordable media similar to the tapes used in audio cassettes

  • A tape is a sequential storage medium

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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CD and DVD Technology

  • Optical storage stores data as microscopic light and dark spots (lands and pits) on the disk surface

    • CD and DVD storage technologies

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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CD and DVD Technology

  • Today’s DVD drives typically have 16X speeds for a data transfer rate of 168.75 Mbps (Note: 16x CD  19.2 Mbps)

  • Three categories of optical technologies

    • Read-only (ROM)

    • Recordable (R)

    • Rewritable (RW)

CD: 780nm

DVD: 650nm

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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CD and DVD Technology

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Solid State Storage

  • Solid state storage technology stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry

  • Non-volatile

  • Card reader may be required to read data on solid state storage

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Solid State Storage

  • A USB flash drive is a portable storage device that plugs directly into a computer’s USB port using a built-in connector (like a portable EEPROM device)

  • A U3 drive is a special type of USB flash drive that is preconfigured to autoplay when it is inserted into a Windows computer

Durability?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Storage Wrap-up, comparison

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Input and Output Devices

  • Basic Input Devices

  • Display Devices

  • Printers

  • Installing Peripheral Devices

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Basic Input Devices

  • Keyboard

  • Pointing device

    • Pointing stick

    • Trackpad

    • Trackball

    • Joystick

  • Touch screen

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Display Devices

  • A CRT display device uses a bulky glass tube

  • An LCD manipulates light within a layer of liquid crystal cells

  • Plasma screen technology illuminates lights arranged in a panel-like screen

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Display Devices

  • Viewable image size

  • Dot pitch

  • Viewing angle width

  • Refresh rate

  • Color depth

  • Resolution

    • VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, UXGA, and WUXGA

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Display Devices

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Display Devices

  • Graphics circuitry generates the signals for displaying an image on the screen

    • Integrated graphics

    • Graphics card

    • Graphics processing unit (GPU)

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Printers

  • An ink-jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper

  • A laser printer works like a photocopier

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Printers

  • Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires

    • The wires strike a ribbon and the paper

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Printers

  • Printer features

    • Resolution (pixel w x h, dpi/dot pitch)

    • Print speed (ppm)

    • Duty cycle (ppM)

    • Operating costs

  • Duplex capability

  • Memory

  • Networkability

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Installing Peripheral Devices

  • The data bus moves data within the computer

  • Expansion cards are small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities

    • Expansion slot

      • ISA

      • PCI

      • AGP

    • PCMCIA slot

      • PC card

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Installing Peripheral Devices

An expansion card simply slides

into an expansion slot and is secured with a small screw. Before you open the case, make sure you unplug the computer and ground

yourself—that’s technical jargon

for releasing static electricity by

using a special grounding wristband

or by touching both hands to a metal object.

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware


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Chapter 2 Complete

Computer Hardware


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