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Chapter 2. Computer Hardware. Chapter Contents. Section A: Personal Computer Basics Section B: Microprocessors and Memory Section C: Storage Devices Section D: Input and Output Devices Section E: Hardware Security. Personal Computer Systems. So, where does the actual computing happen?.

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Computer Hardware

chapter contents
Chapter Contents
  • Section A: Personal Computer Basics
  • Section B: Microprocessors and Memory
  • Section C: Storage Devices
  • Section D: Input and Output Devices
  • Section E: Hardware Security

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

personal computer systems
Personal Computer Systems

So, where does the actual computing happen?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

desktop and portable computers
Desktop and Portable Computers
  • The term form factor refers to the size and dimensions of a component, such as a system board or system unit
  • A desktop computer fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outlet

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

desktop and portable computers5
Desktop and Portable Computers
  • A portable computer is a small, lightweight personal computer
  • A notebook computer (also referred to as a laptop), is a small, lightweight portable computer that opens like a clamshell to reveal a screen and keyboard
  • A tablet computer is a portable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad
  • An ultra-mobile PC (UMPC) is a small form factor tablet computer designed to run most of the software available for larger portable computers

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

desktop and portable computers6
Desktop and Portable Computers

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

microprocessors and memory
Microprocessors and Memory
  • Microprocessor Basics
  • Today’s Microprocessors
  • Random Access Memory
  • Read-only Memory
  • EEPROM

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

microprocessor basics
Microprocessor Basics
  • A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions
    • ALU
    • Registers
    • Control unit
    • Instruction set

Pin Grid

Array (PGA)

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

microprocessor basics9
Microprocessor Basics
  • Front side bus
    • HyperTransport
  • Microprocessor clock
    • Megahertz
    • Gigahertz
  • Word size
  • Cache
    • Level 1 cache (L1)
    • Level 2 cache (L2)
  • CISC vs. RISCtechnology

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

microprocessor basics10
Microprocessor Basics
  • Serial processing
    • Pipelining
  • Parallel processing
  • Dual core processor
  • Hyper-Threading Technology

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

today s microprocessors
Today’s Microprocessors

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

techno speak
Techno-speak

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

random access memory
Random Access Memory
  • Random Access Memory is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

random access memory14
Random Access Memory
  • Microscopic capacitors hold the bits that represent data
  • Most RAM is volatile
    • Requires electrical power to hold data

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

random access memory15
Random Access Memory
  • RAM capacity is expressed in megabytes or gigabytes
  • Personal computers typically feature between 256MB and 2GB of RAM
  • An area of the hard disk, called virtual memory, can be used if an application runs out of allocated RAM

Consequence of too little??

too much??

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

random access memory16
Random Access Memory
  • RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds (8ns v. 10ns) or megahertz
  • SDRAM is fast and relatively inexpensive
    • DDR/DDR2 (double data rate)
  • RDRAM is more expensive, and usually found in high-performance workstations

DIMM

DDR2 DIMM

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

read only memory
Read-Only Memory
  • ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s startup routine
    • Permanent and non-volatile
    • Programmable only once , “hard-wired”
  • The ROM BIOS tells the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM, etc.
    • BIOS: Basis Input/Output System

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

eeprom
EEPROM
  • Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
  • More permanent than RAM, and less permanent than ROM
  • Requires no power to hold data

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

memory quick quiz

F

Memory – Quick Quiz
  • T / F RAM is a form of permanent storage used by personal computers.
  • RAM capacity capable of storing ~ 1,000 million characters would be expressed as _________ of RAM.
  • If your computer manufacturer advertises that you to can keep your computer’s BIOS up to date by downloading and installing revisions/updates, the BIOS for your computes is probably stored on a/an ________ device.

1 GigaByte

EEPROM

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

storage devices
Storage Devices
  • Storage Basics
  • Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology
  • CD and DVD Technology
  • Solid State Storage
  • Storage Wrap-up

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

storage basics
Storage Basics
  • A storage medium contains data
  • A storage device recordsdata and retrieves data on a storage medium
    • Data gets copied from a storage device into RAM, where it waits to be processed
    • Processed data is held temporarily in RAM before it is copied to a storage medium
    • Access times typically measured in milliseconds
      • recall RAM access times in nanoseconds

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

magnetic disk and tape technology
Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology
  • Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surface

Durability?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

magnetic disk and tape technology23
Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology

Hard disk platters and read-write heads are sealed inside the drive case or cartridge to screen out dust and other contaminants.

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

magnetic disk and tape technology24
Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology
  • A controller positions the disk and read-write heads to locate data
    • SATA
    • Ultra ATA
    • EIDE
    • SCSI
  • Not as durable as many other storage technologies
    • Head crash!

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

magnetic disk and tape technology25
Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology
  • A floppy disk is a round piece of flexible Mylar plastic covered with a thin layer of magnetic oxide and sealed inside a protective casing
  • A tape drive is a device that reads data from and writes data to a long stream of recordable media similar to the tapes used in audio cassettes
  • A tape is a sequential storage medium

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

cd and dvd technology
CD and DVD Technology
  • Optical storage stores data as microscopic light and dark spots (lands and pits) on the disk surface
    • CD and DVD storage technologies

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

cd and dvd technology27
CD and DVD Technology
  • Today’s DVD drives typically have 16X speeds for a data transfer rate of 168.75 Mbps (Note: 16x CD  19.2 Mbps)
  • Three categories of optical technologies
    • Read-only (ROM)
    • Recordable (R)
    • Rewritable (RW)

CD: 780nm

DVD: 650nm

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

cd and dvd technology28
CD and DVD Technology

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

solid state storage
Solid State Storage
  • Solid state storage technology stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry
  • Non-volatile
  • Card reader may be required to read data on solid state storage

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

solid state storage30
Solid State Storage
  • A USB flash drive is a portable storage device that plugs directly into a computer’s USB port using a built-in connector (like a portable EEPROM device)
  • A U3 drive is a special type of USB flash drive that is preconfigured to autoplay when it is inserted into a Windows computer

Durability?

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

storage wrap up comparison
Storage Wrap-up, comparison

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

input and output devices
Input and Output Devices
  • Basic Input Devices
  • Display Devices
  • Printers
  • Installing Peripheral Devices

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

basic input devices
Basic Input Devices
  • Keyboard
  • Pointing device
    • Pointing stick
    • Trackpad
    • Trackball
    • Joystick
  • Touch screen

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

display devices
Display Devices
  • A CRT display device uses a bulky glass tube
  • An LCD manipulates light within a layer of liquid crystal cells
  • Plasma screen technology illuminates lights arranged in a panel-like screen

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

display devices35
Display Devices
  • Viewable image size
  • Dot pitch
  • Viewing angle width
  • Refresh rate
  • Color depth
  • Resolution
    • VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, UXGA, and WUXGA

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

display devices36
Display Devices

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

display devices37
Display Devices
  • Graphics circuitry generates the signals for displaying an image on the screen
    • Integrated graphics
    • Graphics card
    • Graphics processing unit (GPU)

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

printers
Printers
  • An ink-jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper
  • A laser printer works like a photocopier

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

printers39
Printers
  • Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires
    • The wires strike a ribbon and the paper

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

printers40
Printers
  • Printer features
    • Resolution (pixel w x h, dpi/dot pitch)
    • Print speed (ppm)
    • Duty cycle (ppM)
    • Operating costs
  • Duplex capability
  • Memory
  • Networkability

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

installing peripheral devices
Installing Peripheral Devices
  • The data bus moves data within the computer
  • Expansion cards are small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities
    • Expansion slot
      • ISA
      • PCI
      • AGP
    • PCMCIA slot
      • PC card

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

installing peripheral devices42
Installing Peripheral Devices

An expansion card simply slides

into an expansion slot and is secured with a small screw. Before you open the case, make sure you unplug the computer and ground

yourself—that’s technical jargon

for releasing static electricity by

using a special grounding wristband

or by touching both hands to a metal object.

Chapter 2: Computer Hardware

chapter 2 complete

Chapter 2 Complete

Computer Hardware

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