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Notes. Return to slide. J200: Journalism and Mass Communications - Week Va. News in Preliterate Societies. News of the Day…. NYT-Crime Of Editing Armies of Consumers: 1776’s Secret Weapon. News in Preliterate Societies. Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/gallery/horse.html.

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Notes

Return to slide

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003



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News of the Day….

  • NYT-Crime Of Editing

  • Armies of Consumers: 1776’s Secret Weapon

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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News in Preliterate Societies

Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/gallery/horse.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Data/info timeline

  • 75,000: Estimated date of geometric carvings found on rocks in South African cave.

  • 45,000: Neanderthal carvings on Wooly Mammoth tooth, discovered near Tata, Hungary

  • 30,000: Ivory horse, oldest known animal carving, from mammoth ivory, discovered near Vogelherd, Germany

Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/century.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Data/info timeline

  • 28,000: Cro-Magnon notation, possibly of phases of the moon, carved onto bone, discovered at Blanchard, France

  • 10,000: Engraved antler baton, with seal, salmon and plants portrayed, discovered at Montgaudier, France

  • 8,000 -- 3100 BCE: In Mesopotamia, tokens used for accounting and record-keeping

    Source: http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/century.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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News in Preliterate Societies

Newspaper Rock, Utah

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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1720-58Anonymous artists create the earliest surviving paintings on hide from New Mexico, known as Segesser I and Segesser II.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing 1

Source: http://www.halfmoon.org/syllabary.html 10/02

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Pre-industrial communication

  • Dead Media Projecthttp://www.deadmedia.org/notes/index-cat.html

  • Pre-industrial-age communicationhttp://www.deadmedia.org/notes/index-cat.html#pi

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Definition of News

  • “New data about a subject of some public interest that is shared with some portion of the public.” –M. Stephens

  • News/publishing does NOT equal journalism

  • Definition/purpose of journalism:

“The central purpose of journalism is to provide citizens with accurate and reliable data/information they need to function in a free society.” -- Bill Kovach

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Early News

Enlighten me now, o Muses

Tenants of Olympian homes,

For you are goddesses, inside on everything, know everything.

But we mortals hear only the news, and know nothing at all.

-- The Illiad

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Early News

  • “Humanity does not pass through phases as a train passes through stations.”-- C. S. Lewis

  • I.e. The coffeehouse flourishes in England after the development of newspapers

  • Some media more likely to leave behind record (e.g. no archive for word-of mouth news)

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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News in Preliterate Societies

  • Market places:

    • Verbal exchange

    • Relationship btwn news and economy

  • “Welcome traveler. Tell me of the news”

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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News in Preliterate Societies

  • China. 3500 BCE

    • Horse become first “technology” to speed the flow of news

  • Lack of organized, systematic dissemination. To the public.

  • Was the public without news?

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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News in Preliterate Societies

  • Ibo (Nigeria): drums of death

  • Toradja (Celebes Islands): fire a gun; close village to hear drum

  • Zulu: “Tell me the news of the country”

  • Notk (Vancouver Island): visitors at feast expected to recount “all the latest novelties.”

  • Jamaica (c. 1960s): “higglers” – who bought food from farmers – shared news of the city.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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So why this thing for news?

  • Stephens: “the furious itch of novelty”

  • Why do we care?

    • Anthropologist view

    • Biologist’s evolutionary view

    • Survival and….

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Source: http://www.cre8pc.com/images/judi_2.gif

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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From Stone to Papyrus (c. 3000-2500BCE)

  • Egypt: shift from absolute monarch to more “democratic” organization

  • Shift from stone/clay as medium of communication (or prestige) to

    • Emphasis on papyrus (2750-2540 BCE)

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Cuneiform

http://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/gallery/cuniform.html

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Cuneiform Cylinder

Source: http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/1b.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.columbia.edu/acis/textarchive/rare/1.html&h=439&w=264&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcuneiform%2Bcylinder%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26oe%3DUTF-8

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Egyptian hieroglyphic

Source: http://www.fnspo.cz/mmm/egypt/hiero/11.htm

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Egyptian hieroglyphic

  • Beginning of “grammar” i.e. “rules” that would be commonly understood by those other than the creator of the communication

  • Growth of “knowledge worker” class

    • “education” and skills become valued

    • Society supports those who do more than just provide for the base levels of Maslow’s needs

    • “Expected” and “Shared” communication

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Significance of Egyptian Alphabet

  • By 2900 BCE, for of script and use of signs fully developed

  • By 2825 BCE, direction of writing and arrang. of words in “logical” position in sentences.

  • Communication over long distances emphasized uniformity in writing.

  • On large tablets, writing ran from let to right. Why?

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Clay and Social Organization

  • Commercial activity required many scribes

    • Same as the digital revolution required code jockeys ( programmers )

    • Hard to learn so that meant schools necessary

    • Used temple accounts and “sign lists” by priests as first “schoolbooks”

    • Schools built in connection with temples, emphasis on grammar and math

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Clay and Social Organization

  • Art of writing basis of education

    • Controlled by priest, scribes, teachers, judges

    • Every act of civic life is a matter of law (seals, contracting parties and witnesses)

  • City courts developed

    • Court decision become basis of civil law.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Papyrus and Crocks

  • Perlman: “Ancient Egyptians Wrapped Crocodiles in Good Reading”

  • The Contents of The Tebtunis Papyri

  • http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/APIS/Images/index.html

  • The Media History Project Connections Pages: Oral & Scribal Culturehttp://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/oral.html

  • Duke Papyrus Archivehttp://odyssey.lib.duke.edu/papyrus/

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Papyrus Technology

  • Made from Cyperus papyrus only found in Nile Delta

  • Extremely light (significance?)

  • Brushes, also from plant

  • Black and red inks (same colors as Maya)

  • Wrote from right to left, kept rolling papyrus scroll in left hand. Why?

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Organization of Scribes

  • Writing had been restricted to gov’t., fiscal, magical and religious purposes

  • Papyrus and simpler hieroglyphic script into characters leads to more efficient administration

  • Scribes/officials respon. for collecting and spending $$$ organized as a civil service.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Organization of Scribes

  • After 2,000 BCE, new class of scribes

  • Literacy becomes stepping store to prosperity and social rank.

    • “The scribe comes to sit among the member of the assemblies … no scribe fails to eat the victuals of the king’s house.”

    • “Put writing in your heart that you may protect yourself from hard labor of any kind and be a magistrate of high repute. The scribe is released from manual tasks.”

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Effects of Writing and Equality

  • Redistribution of Power

    • King gains from revolution as incarnation of the king gods

    • Ritual enables king to appoint proxy as prophet

    • Power delegated to professional priests

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Chinese literacy

  • 4,000 years old

  • Began as picture writing; phonic elements added gradually

  • Relatively minor changes in script

  • Until 3rd Century BCE, wrote on bone, stone, wood, metal and bamboo

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Chinese Writing - 3rd Century to 0 Century

  • Bristle brush developed

  • Ink of pine soot or black earth

  • Paper: -- cheap, convenient, portable

    • Tsai-Lun, super. of weapons factory, invesnts in 105 A.D.

    • Cooked mush of plant fibers, bark, hemp, rags and water

    • Poured onto screens of bamboo strips.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Chinese Writing

  • 600 A.D. -- Papermaking to Korea and Japan

  • 751 A.D. -- Paper mills in Baghdad, Damascus and Egypt

  • 11th/12 Cent. -- technology to Europe via Spain

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Chinese Writing

  • Early on, discovered block printing. Same basics as today

    • Reverse image

    • Press

    • Paper

    • Ink

  • 1045: Pi Shang, metalworker, invents press with movable characters of metal clay and wood. 40,000 characters.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Chinese News Gathering

  • 206 B.C. -- Han dynasty sets up postal network throughout empire

    • Used only to provide info to the imperials courts, not masses

  • 618-907 A.D. -- Handwritten official news paper, ti pao, published. News to gov’t officials.

  • 960-1278 -- Sung dynasty, ti pao, disseminated among intellectuals

  • 1367-1844 -- Ming period. Wider distribution of ti pao

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Movable Type

1450: all essential ingredients for mass production of printed thoughts at hand:

  • Paper has replaced vellum in manuscripts

  • Codex has replaced the scroll as preferred form for books

  • Experiments in metalographic printing underway in France, Holland, Germany:

    • 1430 - metal letters as dies, pressed into clay

    • Lead printing block cast from clay mold

    • Plate inked and pressed to paper

    • Usually poor reproduction

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Movable Type

  • Gutenberg employs individual metal letters; reusable

  • Type set in equal lines

  • Thin pieces of led placed between lines

  • Columns locking to a “matrix,” which is inked

  • Paper pressed against matrix with “grape crusher” of winemaker

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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1550 Printing Studio

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Gutenberg’s Bible

  • Produced in 1455 or 1456

  • Press run of between 70 and 270 copies

  • Within 50 years, press runs in the thousands become the norm

  • Book production up; prices fall

  • Book publishing become profitable, international business

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Post-invention of moveable type

  • Media History timelinehttp://www.mediahistory.umn.edu/time/1400s.html

  • By 1492, there are 90+ publishers scattered around Europe. Publish C. Columbus’s report before he returned to Spain.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Post-invention of moveable type

  • Printing ends monopoly of church-produced books

    • Histories

    • Geographies

    • Biographies

    • Observations of physical world; beginning of “science”

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Post-invention of moveable type

  • Growth of literacy

    • Widespread availability of cheaper literature

    • Clear glass windows allow illumination of interiors

    • Invention of eyeglasses in 17th Century

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Post-invention of moveable type

  • Accelerates Protestant revolution/ Reformation

  • Martin Luther nails Ninety-five Theses to university church door in Wittenberg. Then prints them for distribution

  • Luther and evangelical associates become first true mass communicators

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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Post-invention of moveable type

  • Cost of printing still dropping

  • Reformers start printing Bible in common languages

  • Catholic church attempts to keep faithful from reading

  • 1564: Catholic church issues Index of Prohibited Books

    • Updated every 50 years. Includes works of Galileo and Kepler

    • Index exists until 1966.

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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English “news” ballad c. 1586

But now beholde my great decay;

Which on a sodaine come;

My sumptuous buildings burned beBy force of fires flame:

A careless wretch, most rude in life,

His chymney set on fire,

The instrument, I must confess,

Of God’s most heavie ire

J200 - Week © J.T.Johnson 1999-2003_____________________________Fall 2003


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