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Mapping global bird distributions. NCEAS working group meeting 16-20 July 2001. Walter Jetz Dept Zoology Oxford. Large-scale conservation priority setting (refining the hotspot approach with species distributions) Rapid assessment of diversity in regions under threat

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Mapping global bird distributions l.jpg

Mapping global bird distributions

NCEAS working group meeting 16-20 July 2001

Walter Jetz

Dept Zoology

Oxford


Benefits l.jpg

Large-scale conservation priority setting (refining the hotspot approach with species distributions)

Rapid assessment of diversity in regions under threat

Coarse-resolution basis for deductive modelling of species’ fine-scale distributions

Scrutiny of hypothesis in large-scale ecology

Benefits

Why a free, public global vertebrate distribution database would be valuable

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Slide3 l.jpg

  • General GOs and NGOs

  • tool for resource and land management

  • General Public

  • custom species lists for home region or eco-tourism destinations

  • Private Sector Land-use

  • information tool for land development projects, impact assessments

Beneficiaries

  • Conservation NGOs

  • prioritise conservation efforts

  • taxonomically: range size as measure of extinction risk

  • geographically: refining hotspots using species data

  • Museums

  • identify holes in distribution and gaps of specimen records

  • prioritise areas for fieldwork

  • link morphological data and biogeographic perspective

  • Academia

  • identify determinants of patterns in species richness

  • detect mechanisms and environmental correlates of speciation

  • understand environmental determinants of biological patterns

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


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  • Conservation NGOs

  • ground network of expertise

  • source and gap identification

  • facilitation of digitisation and gap filling

  • Museums

  • taxonomic expertise

  • source identification and selection

  • specimen records

  • Academia

  • methodological expertise

  • source selection and prioritisation

  • GIS tools

Joint Effort

Working Group

meetings at (and funded by)

National Centre for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of Santa Barbara

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Diversity of terrestrial vertebrates l.jpg

Birds (Sibley)

Passerines (Passeriformes): 5879

Nonpasserines (Non-Passeriformes): 4075

Mammals(Wilson & Reeder 1993)

Platypus, Echidnas (Monotremata): 3

Oppossums, Kangaroos etc. (Marsupalia): 273

Placental Mammals (Eutheria): 4353-78 (whales)

Amphibians (Duellman & Trueb 1986)

Frogs and Toads (Salientia): 3438

Salamanders and Newts (Caudata): 352

Caecilians (Gymnophiona): 162

Reptiles (Uetz)

Lizards (Sauria): 4582

Snakes (Serpentes): 2910

Turtles (Testudines): 296

Crocodiles (Crocodylia): 23

Amphisbaenians (Amphisbaenia): 158

Tuataras (Rhynchocephalia): 2

Diversity of Terrestrial Vertebrates

9954

4275

3952

7971

--------

26152

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Slide6 l.jpg

Birds

regional databases

9954 species

in 176 families

State of country- and continent-wide mapping efforts for bird distributions. Dark green: advanced, light green: weak

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Sources l.jpg

Identify key sources

Regional atlas projects

Sources

Meta-data collections

Congo Peacock

Regional species lists

Species accounts

Museum specimen

Square-tailed Kite

Experts’ opinion

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Slide9 l.jpg

Not

covered

Gridded

databases

Nonpasserines

not covered

Australia

Passerines

Other

Europe &

not covered

Mono-

Africa

graphs

Handbook of

the Birds of the

World

America

Birds

the knowledge base

I. Major regional atlases

(proportion of 9954 bird species)

II. Major monographs

(proportion of 176 bird families)

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Slide10 l.jpg

Inter-relationship of Source Types

Gaps

Geographically

organised sources

Taxonomically

organised sources

Distributions

  • Atlases

  • Regional databases

  • Regional monographs

  • Regional specimen collections

  • etc. ...

  • Monographs

  • Specimen Collections

  • etc. ...

source

overlap

Sources organised by extinction risk

  • IUCN Red List data

  • Conservation NGO data and distribution maps


Slide11 l.jpg

Example: Bird Distributions in Asia

Gaps

Geographically

organised sources

Taxonomically

organised sources

Distributions

  • HBW - Nonpasserines

  • Thrushes of the World

  • Finches and Sparrows of the World

  • Old World Warblers

  • etc. ...

  • The Birds of China

  • Birds of the Indian Subcontinent

  • Birds of Japan

  • etc. ...

source

overlap

Sources organised by extinction risk

  • Threatened Birds of the World

  • Regional threatened species databases


Slide12 l.jpg

Birds: 9,954 species

Taxonomically

organised sources

Geographically

organised sources

  • I.

  • ABI-CABS Birds of the Americas Databasepartial ranges for ca. 3,680 species

  • Atlas of Birds of Australiapartial ranges for ca. 1,030 species

  • Atlas of Birds of Europepartial ranges for ca. 430 species

  • Birds of Oceanic islands, from WWF eco-regions and other sourcespartial ranges for ca. 450 species

  • I.

  • Handbook of the Birds of the World

  • full ranges for 3,666 species

Full Distributions

I. 8,200 species

III.

Various family monographs

II. 9,450 species

III. 9,954 species

  • II.

  • Birds of the Western Palearcticfull ranges for ca. 520 species

  • Birds of China

  • Keith et al: Birds of Africa, Atlases from Southern Africa, Tanzania, Kenia, Somalia, Liberia, etc. …partial ranges for ca. 2000 species

Sources organised by extinction risk

I.

Birdlife: Threatened Birds of the World

full ranges for 1,189 species

  • III.

  • Various regional sources and species lists.

III.

Birdlife: Endemic Bird Areas

for Orientalis, Wallacea

* listed are potential sources pending agreement with authors/publishers


Slide13 l.jpg

Gridded,

fixed resolution

Hierarchical Decision Rule

S4 > S3 > S2 > S1

  • Climate and vegetation layers, remotely sensed

  • Species habitat preference information

Concatenated,

original resolution

confirmed fine scale presence and absence,extent of occurrence maps for biogeographic validation

Modelled (inductive and deductive) species distribution

How to map a species’ range from a variety of sources?

Overlaying disparate sources

Source 3

Regional Atlas

Source 4

Point Data

Source 1

HBW

Source 2

Regional Monograph


General methodology l.jpg

Range of potential sources

Evaluate sources for quality, accessibility and complementarity

Identify available sources

Selected sources

Identify most efficient method of digitisation

Multitude of regional and taxonomic databases of different resolution and quality

Queried database

Devise hierarchical algorithm for query where sources overlap

Digitise

General Methodology

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Taxonomies l.jpg

Data Reality

Taxonomies will always differ somehow by expert and region

Various initiatives: ISIS, Species2000…. BCIS

Taxonomies

  • Master Taxonomies ?

  • Herps: Master Taxonomies?

  • Mammals: Wilson & Reeder

  • Birds: Sibley & Ahlquist

  • Solution …?

  • Create database of all potential taxonomies (or ask data provider to provide)

  • Link all taxonomies to master taxonomy


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Source Types - Problems

  • Extent of occurrence maps

  • poor temporal and spatial resolution

  • wide coverage

  • Frame/size of maps printed in books does not scale with extent of range

    • potentially high spatial error

    • size of error should be directly related to map scale, can perhaps be incorporated in modelling

  • inter- and extrapolated in unstandardised way, false presences

  • great resource for range modelling together with point data

  • Atlas Data

  • good temporal resolution

  • geographically limited

  • differences in observer effort, holes in distribution, false absences

  • Point Data: specimen, community studies, observations

  • perfect temporal and spatial resolution

  • coverage scattered, patchy, biased

  • great basis for ranges modelling using remotely sensed data and extent of occurrence maps for biogeographic component


Towards a standardised source database l.jpg

Towards a standardised source database

  • Source types:

  • Published or expert-based extent of occurrence maps, atlas data, gridded databases, regional or local community studies, point localities (observations and specimen)

Fields to include:

  • Usual reference information (author, year, title, journal/publisher)

  • Extent: temporal, taxonomic, geographic (description), spatial object

  • Procedural information: processes undertaken, dates, people behind

  • Evaluation:

    • spatial resolution

    • quality: correct species identification

    • quality: spatial error data

    • quality: spatial error digitisation

  • Notes: Similar sources


Slide18 l.jpg

Time Efficient Data Entry

Streamlining the digitisation process

Square-tailed Kite

White-collared Kite

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Slide19 l.jpg

Global Patterns of Diversity in Diurnal Raptors

Ranges of year-round residents, min=1 to max=70 species

Data from Handbook of the Birds of the World, resampled to 200km grid

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Slide20 l.jpg

New World Passerines

Species Richness

natural breaks, min=1, max=332

Geom. Mean of Range Sizes

natural breaks, min=12990km2, max=13642403km2

Collaboration with Lisa Manne and Stuart Pimm.

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


Determinants of species richness hypotheses l.jpg

Energy availability

Habitat Heterogeneity

Evolutionary Time

Biome area

Geometric constraints

Determinants of species richness- Hypotheses -

Plethora of hypotheses

Lessons so far

  • one single factor ???

  • many studies to date:

    • limited to one specific hypothesis/variable

    • limited to small region, taxonomic sub-sample

    • limited to one dimension (e.g. latitude)

    • excluding the tropics


Slide22 l.jpg

Species richness pattern

All species (n=1902), continental Africa

Natural breaks classification, 2-615 species per quadrat

Collaboration with Carsten Rahbek.


Slide23 l.jpg

Productivity & Habitat Heterogeneity

NDVI mean of all ten-day images (1982-99)

  • remotely sensed from AVHHR satellites at 7.6km resolution

  • NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index) is measure of greenness of vegetation, often used for vegetation classification

  • NDVI is synthesis of climatic condition that regulate productivity


Productivity habitat heterogeneity spatial pattern observed vs predicted l.jpg

Productivity & Habitat Heterogeneityspatial pattern, observed vs. predicted

observed

predicted

(NPP, NPP2, HabHet)

Natural breaks classification, left 3-558 species per quadrat, right 28-371


Productivity habitat heterogeneity spatial pattern of residuals l.jpg

Productivity & Habitat Heterogeneityspatial pattern of residuals

cyan: -

white: 0

red: +

Residual from model NPP+NPP2+HabHet

Standard deviation classification, <-3 to >+3s.d.; left -8.962 to 8.612 ; right -214 to 262


A signature of history l.jpg

Past climate events and their potential regional significance difficult to reconcile

Species data as proxy

Assumption: Regions with restricted range species (Centers of Endemism) have distinct evolutionary history

Prediction: species richness in such defined regions with distinct evolutionary history is

likely to be higher than in surrounding regions

much less well predicted from contemporary environmental variables

A signature of history?


Slide27 l.jpg

The signature of historyobserved and predicted species richness in and outside Centers of Endemism (CoE)

Observed species richness

Residual from model NPP+NPP2+HabHet

Centers of endemism: quadrats with species that have <= 10 quadrats range size

Natural breaks classification

3-558 species per quadrat

Standard deviation classification

<-3 to >+3s.d., -214 to 262 species


Slide28 l.jpg

The signature of historyobserved and predicted species richness in and outside Centers of Endemism (CoE)


Slide29 l.jpg

Phylogeography

Environmental change and rates of evolution: the phylogeographic pattern within the hartebeest complex as related to climatic variation

Flagstad et al. Proc. R. Soc Lond. B (2001) 268, 667-677

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


The end product l.jpg

One-off database, downloadable from the internet

Continuously updated, peer supervised internet based database embedded in a multi-level access, graphical web-portal with facilities for down- and uploading data etc. ...

The ‘End’ Product?

Source, species, lat, lon

17,1245,45,42

17, 1245,45,43

17, 1245,45,41

17, 1245,44,43

17, 1245,43,43

17, 1245,43,42

17, 1246,02,22

17, 1246,02,22

17, 1246,03,20

17, 1246,03,19

………………

Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


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Mapping Global Vertebrate Distributions

Walter Jetz, University of Oxford


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