Early settlement history of iceland
Download
1 / 16

Early Settlement History of Iceland - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 388 Views
  • Updated On :

Early Settlement History of Iceland. Naddoddr. According to the Landn á mab ó k (Book of Settlement) Naddoddr was a Viking who was the first person to touch land in Iceland around 825 A.D. He named the country Sn æ land (Land of Snow). Iceland Voyages (9th Century A.D.).

Related searches for Early Settlement History of Iceland

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Early Settlement History of Iceland' - Renfred


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Naddoddr l.jpg
Naddoddr

  • According to the Landnámabók (Book of Settlement) Naddoddr was a Viking who was the first person to touch land in Iceland around 825 A.D.

  • He named the country Snæland (Land of Snow)


Iceland voyages 9th century a d l.jpg
Iceland Voyages(9th Century A.D.)


Slide4 l.jpg


Hrafna fl ki l.jpg
Hrafna-Flóki

  • Another Norseman who traveled with three ravens (Hrafna) to help lead him to Iceland

  • Also made it through the winter, but lost all his cattle

  • Vatnsfjordur

  • Borgarfjordur

  • He named Iceland (ísland)


Ing lfur arnarson l.jpg
Ingólfur Arnarson

  • A Norseman who had instigated a blood feud in Norway

  • He and his adopted brother Hjörleifur set out to explore Iceland

  • They made it through a winter and returned the following year with other settlers

  • Built a farmstead in Reykjavík


Archaeology l.jpg
Archaeology

  • Landnámabók and Sagas as guides to sites

  • However, these sources left out many settlement areas including the Mývatn region (Mývatnssveit) in the northeast, which features a farm at Sveigakot and an iron-smelting site and farm at Hrísheimar (Edvardsson, 2003)


Early life l.jpg
Early life

  • Encountered birch woodlands (Smith, 1994; Vésteinsson, 1998, 2000)

  • Most early settlers farmed in wetland areas that did not require clearing

  • Areas prone to glacial flooding would allow for easy movement into the inland areas

  • Egalitarian farm distributions


Resource depletion l.jpg
Resource Depletion

  • Needed plants/trees for building materials, grazing, fuel (domestic and iron-smelting), farm land

  • Birch pollen greatly declines between 871 CE and 920 CE tephra layers

  • 1200 CE lack of fuel availability halted iron-smelting at Hrísheimar

  • Many sites abandoned due to erosion issues (Sveigakot)


Slide12 l.jpg
Food

  • Domesticated cattle, wild fish and birds, arctic fox, porpoise, seal and whale (McGovern et al. 2006)

  • Must have used internal trade for sea resources (caught and processed elsewhere and brought inland)

  • High presence of eggs (versus hunting birds) suggests some management practices


Domesticated animals l.jpg
Domesticated Animals

  • Goats, sheep, pigs, horses and cattle

  • Later in the records sheep take over and cattle decline while pigs and goats virtually drop out

  • This may be due to less available grazing land or attempts to control erosion problems


Environmental effects l.jpg
Environmental Effects

  • Now 73% of Iceland suffers from erosion issues (Arnalds et al., 2001, cited in Simpson et al., 2004)

  • Overgrazing prevented forest regeneration

  • Volcanic nature of soils makes them particularly susceptible to erosion

  • Although seasonal grazing was practiced at sites such as Sveigakot winter grazing seems to have gone unchecked


Environmental effects15 l.jpg
Environmental Effects

  • Some farms in southern Iceland show evidence of land management practices that have maintained soil quality to present day.

  • It has also been suggested that some farms just had a string of bad seasons and that climate affected grazing seasons

  • Larger farms with greater resource access and knowledge of previous farm failures had a greater chance of survival

  • Volcanic activity, glacial flooding and climate changes should also be recognized as contributing factors



ad