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Designing Effective Homework. Presenter: Debra Pickering. The Homework Ate My Family KIDS ARE DAZED, PARENTS ARE STRESSED BY ROMESH RATNESAR. The Case For and Against Homework. Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns. Topics for Recommendations.

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slide1

Designing Effective Homework

Presenter: Debra Pickering

slide10

The Case For and Against Homework

Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns

Topics for Recommendations

slide11

On a day to day basis, how much time should students spend on homework?

  • What is the role of parents when their children are working on homework? What should parents do if their children cannot complete the homework on their own?
  • What do you consider to be the major purpose(s) of homework?
  • What makes homework effective? What makes homework ineffective?
  • How did homework impact you as a learner?
slide15

Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns

"Missing Out on Their Childhoods"

"The Creation of the

Homework Potato"

"So Much Work,

So Little Time"

slide16

Headlines

Teachers mull ending homework for pupils

After years of teachers piling it on, there\'s a new movement to ...

Abolish homework

(San Francisco Chronicle, October 8, 2006)

Other countries

do better with less homework

slide17

Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns

In The Case Against Homework (2006), there is page after page of heart-wrenching testimonials, such as:

“I had to quit ballet and I don’t get enough sleep and I don’t have time to read,” says Caroline, a fifth grader in a Memphis public school who does seventy to eighty minutes of homework each night.”

“My first grader would love to participate in our family’s ‘Game Night’ with her grandparents, but often can’t because of homework…’

NO TIME TO SOCIALIZE

Children fourteen and under spend an average of only twenty-five minutes each weekday socializing with family and friends outside of school, according to a 2004 study conducted at the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research.

slide18

Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns

THE STUDY

“Changing Time for American Youth, 1981-2003 (Juster, Ono, and Stafford, November, 2004).

Studying 49 minutes

Playing 45 minutes

Computer activities 25 minutes

Watching TV 111 minutes

“Skyrocketing” Today Show

6-8 year olds went from 8 minutes a day spent “studying” to 29 minutes a day in 2003.

That same group spent an average of 103 minutes a day watching TV and engaging in other passive activities; and, another 74 minutes per day playing.

slide19

Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns

From Kohn:

“Most attentive parents can testify that their children are chronically frustrated by homework—weepy, stressed out, and fed up…

But only an individual squirreled away in the proverbial ivory towercould deny—and only someone bereft of human feelings could minimize the importance of—the fact that an awful lot of homework is emotionally trying for an awful lot of children”. (emphasis added)

There is no mention of the data Kohn knows well that in a national poll of parents,

Percent Beliefs about homework

64% About right

25% Too little

10% Too much

(as reported in Loveless, 2003)

slide20

Misrepresentations and Valid Concerns

Are there valid concerns?

slide21

Topics

  • Purpose
  • Feedback
  • Time
  • Parent Involvement
  • Accountability
slide23

Homework Assignments Issue: Time

A

B

Learning Goal: Increase competency when multiplying 3 digits time 3 digits.

Assignment:

Do all of the even numbered problems on page 100-101. Bring your work to class with you tomorrow morning.

Practice this skill tonight by using the problems on page 100-101. Do as many as you can accurately in 15 minutes tonight. Bring with you those you were able to do in the 15 minutes.

What are the pro’s and con’s of each approach?

slide24

Harris Cooper: 10 minutes x grade level??????

From: “The Case for and Against Homework, Marzano and Pickering, Educational Leadership

…within their analysis of homework versus no homework studies Cooper, Robinson, and Patall found studies at grades 2, 3, and 4 demonstrating positive effects for homework

slide25

Harris Cooper: 10 minutes x grade level??????

From: “The Case for and Against Homework, Marzano and Pickering, Educational Leadership

The Cooper (1989a) synthesis reported that for secondary students the benefit of homework continued up to 1 to 2 hours per night. After that the benefits decreased.

Similar findings were reported in the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall (2006) study. Specifically, the authors reported that 7 to 12 hours (per week) produced the largest effect size. After that the benefits decreased.

They suggest that for 12th graders the optimum amount of homework might lie between 1.5 and 2.5 hours per night but caution that no hard and fast rules are warranted.

slide26

Issues and Recommendations

  • Time
  • Key points:
  • Time constraints should be identified when assigning homework.
  • If students cannot complete the assigned work within the time constraints, they should have the opportunity to complete the work in class.
slide27

Necessary—sometimes difficult---conversations

When homework is assigned, to what extent am I/are we confident that students are spending an appropriate amount of time?

How could we monitor this?

slide29

Homework Policies Issue: Purpose

A

B

You can expect homework each evening, Monday through Thursday. It is your responsibility to complete the assignments to be prepared for class the next day.

There often is just not enough time in class for each of you to study and practice what you are learning. When it seems that there is a clear need for further individual work beyond what we do in class, you will have homework.

For some learning goals, frequent homework might be assigned; for others, there might be no need for homework. When there is homework, it is your responsibility to complete the work and be prepared for class the next day.

Pros and Cons?

slide30

Issues and Recommendations

  • Purpose
  • Avoid assigning homework simply as a matter of routine.
  • Students need to understand the purpose of the homework.
  • The purpose of homework should be to enhance the learning of essential learning goals.
  • Homework assignments should be appropriate for the learning goals that are being addressed.

“Expert teachers…do not report rigidly adhering to regular homework schedules so much as flexible use of what they view as a means for furthering collectively defined curricular goals.

…[they] see policies requiring rigid homework schedules as undermining their ultimate curricular goals…”

(as reported in “Homework is a Complicated Thing”, Lyn Corno)

slide31

Issues and Recommendations

  • Purpose
  • Avoid assigning homework simply as a matter of routine.
  • Students need to understand the purpose of the homework.
  • The purpose of homework should be to enhance the learning of essential learning goals.
  • Homework assignments should be appropriate for the learning goals that are being addressed.
slide32

Clear Learning Goals?

Examples (adaptations) from The Case Against Homework:

  • Read Chapter 5 and
  • identify who said the following quotes
  • find these vocabulary works, circle them, write a definition
  • make a timeline of events

Read pages 62-66 in your textbook, and answer the questions at the end.

Read chapters 6-10 in To Kill a Mockingbird.

On a 12 x 12 piece of plywood, nail one-hundred nails (size shown in diagram) at precise intervals at the same depth. Take six difference colors of embroidery thread and weave it between the nails in geometric pattern.

Circle all the words on this page that begin with the letter A. Then write them out

Solve the fifty math problems on page 100.

slide33

United States map in 2056 

  • *Label the states (write them out)
  • *Write down the population of each of the 50 states for the year 2056 (projection)
  • 3. *Write the title " United States Population Map in 2056".
  • 4. Make a key of the following categories20,000,000 or more15,000,000-19,999,99910,000,000-14,999,9995,000,000-9,999,999Less than 5,000,000
  • 5. Color the map
  • ***Use black or blue pen to label***
slide34

Assignment Notebook

Assignment:

Due:

Learning Goal: As a result of doing this assignment, I should

Know more about…? Understand better…? Be more skilled at…?

slide35

Issues and Recommendations

  • Purpose
  • Avoid assigning homework simply as a matter of routine.
  • Students need to understand the purpose of the homework.
  • The purpose of homework should be to enhance the learning of essential learning goals.
  • Homework assignments should be appropriate for the learning goals that are being addressed.
slide36

Necessary—sometimes difficult---conversations

What is the learning goal?

Given the learning goal, is this assignment the right one?

Is this worth the time?

Are there aspects of the assignment that require knowledge/materials not available to all students?

slide37

Mission Project

The Alamoc

slide39

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slide40

Learning Goal:

Understand the concept of a mole in chemistry--6.02 x 10 ^23– Avogadro’s number

slide41

My students at xxxx High School are required to create a Mole Day project. The projects are graded based on creativity and originality. I have seen many excellent ideas every year and hear about many others through the letters which I receive. Here are some project  ideas that I have seen or used in the past. 

The students are told about the project at the beginning of the school year.  They have about three weeks to decide what they are going to do. 

By the middle of September that have to confirm in writing to me what their project is going to be.  They are allowed to work in groups of up to four students if they want.  Project are due one week before Mole Week starts (usually the week that we have parent conferences) so that I have time to grade them, take pictures,  and place them strategically around the school building (glass display cases, windows of the school store, on walls in main hallways, etc.)    

slide42

Learning Goal:

Understand the concept of a mole in chemistry--6.02 x 10 ^23– Avogadro’s number

Assignment

Make a mole from the pattern your are given. Create an environment/costume for the mole that plays on the word “mole.”

slide61

MOLE DAY PROJECT RUBRIC

STUFFED MOLE

Obituary

1. Typed single -spaced on a 6” x 4” index card (10 pts) _________

2. Card is completely filled- (5 pts) _________

3.   The information is in obituary form (10 pts) _________

4.  The obituary is original with accurate data about the

Scientist- it is not plagiarized (10 pts) _________

Stuffed Mole

1. The mole is at least five and a half inches or larger (5pts) _________

2. Costuming and props are present (20 pts) _________

3.  The mole is original and creative. It is obvious that a lot of

time and thought was put into the making of the mole.(25 pts) _________

4. The mole depicts the scientist accurately and the scientist came

from either the physics, chemistry, engineering, or

mathematical disciplines or inventor (10 pts) _________

Presentation of mole

1. The student’s name is found on the mole. (5pts) _________

TOTAL POINTS OUT OF 100 _____________

LETTER GRADE ____________

slide62

Molympics -  An Olympic competition which may consist of any Mole-related events such as:  Pin the Nose on the Mole, Javelin Throw, and the 6.02 Relay

Mole-opoly- create your own special game board

Create a "Moletin Board"- post important events relating to Mole Day Activities

Host a Mole Pun Contest

Write a Mole Day song- be original

Make Mole Day "campaign signs" - like you do for class president, student council, etc.

Notify your local media as to your Mole Day festivities - invite the local papers to come and take part in the activities of the day.  Also contact local radio and television stations about what you are doing. Encourage your local community to be part of your school activity.

Exchange Mole Day greeting cards - Send Mole Day greetings to chemistry students in a different school, or even in a different state.

Mole costume party - Who can make the best mole outfit?

Decorate with Mole-biles - Hang them form the ceiling of various classrooms.  Create interest for future years.

Scavenger Hunt - Create a list of household items but use chemistry terms for the items you want.  Such as: Something that contains NaHCO3

Write a Mole Day poem, story, or cartoon 

Make a Mole Day flag - Run it up the school flag pole on Mole Day.  (Make sure you have permission first!)

Make a mole pinata or a stuffed mole

Make Mole Day treats: Moleasses cookies, Avogadro Dip, or Taco-mole sauce

slide63

Chemistry: Mole Project

Choose one of the following to determine and sign up for it on the board. You and your partner should find the needed information and calculate your answer using the factor-label method showing all of our work on a large sheet of paper. You will need to present your work to the class too.

1.Do the oceans contain one mole of water drops?

2.If you were to stack a mole of pennies one on top of the other, how many round trips to the sun could you make?

3. If you had one mole of rice grains, how many kilograms of rice would each person on earth have to eat each second of their life?

4. If you had a mole of M&M’s, how many times could you cover the surface of the earth?

5. If you had a mole of sheets of paper stacked on top of each other, how many round trips to the moon could you make?

slide64

Chemistry: Mole Project

6. If you placed a mole of skittles side by side , how many trips around the Earth’s equator could you make?

7. If you covered the state of Indiana with a mole of dimes, how high would the dimes stack up?

8. If you had a mole of pennies, how many dollars would each person on Earth have if you shared your pennies with them?

9. If you had a mole of small paperclips chained together, how many times could you wrap the chain around the equator of Jupiter?

10.If you had a mole of large paperclips chained together, how many trips to Pluto would it make?

11.If you had a mole of quarters, how many moons would it take to equal the mass of the mole of quarters?

12.How many people would it take to make a mole of heartbeats in 75 years?

slide67

“I am sorry I can’t come out and play right now. I have to help my dad with my science project.”

“Mom, you got an A!”

“Hello. JoAnn’s Craft’s? Do you have Styrofoam balls in the shapes and sizes of all the planets? How late are you open?”

“Here is my volcano, son. It was your grandfather’s, too. He would be proud—and it is a guaranteed “A.”

Special Topic: School Projects

slide68

Issues and Recommendations

  • Purpose
  • Avoid assigning homework simply as a matter of routine.
  • Students need to understand the purpose of the homework.
  • The purpose of homework should be to enhance the learning of essential learning goals.
  • Homework assignments should be appropriate for the learning goals that are being addressed.
slide75

Examples: Reflection with Two-column/Cornell Notes

Name_____________________ Subject:______________________

Date: Topic:_______________________

  • Reflecting/Processing
  • Questions– literal and inferential
  • Nonlinguistic representations
  • Cues
  • Reminders/Cautions

Notes

slide77

Class Notes

Homework

slide78

Fun and Enjoyment are similar because they both

________________.

________________.

________________.

Fun and Enjoyment are different because

Fun is ___, but Enjoyment is ___________.

Fun is____, but Enjoyment is ___________.

Fun is ____, but Enjoyment is ___________.

slide79

A win and a victory are similar because they both

________________.

________________.

________________.

A win and a victory are different because

Win is ___, but Victory is __________.

Win is ___,but Victory is ________.

Win is ___,but Victory is ________.

slide80

Fractionsand Decimals are similar because they both ________________. ________________. ________________.

Fractionsand Decimals are different because

Fractions __, but Decimals __.

Fractions __, but Decimals __.

Fractions __, but Decimals __.

slide81

A monarchyand a dictatorship are similar because they both ________________. ________________. ________________.

A monarchyand a dictatorship are different because

a monarchy___, but a dictatorship____.

a monarchy___, but a dictatorship____.

a monarchy___, but a dictatorship____.

slide82

??

_____ in The Outsiders

is to

???????????

Relationship:

as

_____ in Romeo and Juliet

??

is to

slide83

Analyzing Perspectives

…the process of identifying multiple perspectives on an issue and examining the reasons or logic behind each.

  • When you are examining an issue about which people disagree, identify one perspective.
  • Next, explain the reasons or logic for that perspective.
  • Identify a different perspective, and repeat step 2.
slide86

Constructing Support

…is the process of developing a network of support for assertions.

  • Determine if you are offering a fact or an opinion
  • If you are offering an opinion, and if the opinion is important enough to support it, develop and communicate support.
  • Consider appropriate use of facts, evidence, examples, and appeals.
slide87

Fact or Opinion

  • I am the best, most qualified, candidate for the job.
  • I have been serving in the legislature for six years.
  • My opponent has not served in a public office before this.
  • My opponent is too inexperienced to be ready to do the job on day one.
  • President Bush was wrong to go to war in Iraq.
  • My opponent voted for the war.
  • The wealthy should pay higher taxes than they do now.
  • 10% of the people pay 65% of the income taxes in this country.
  • Global warming is being caused by human activity.
slide88

Fallacies:

Arguing from ignorance

“My claim is justified because you can’t prove the opposite.”

Arguing against the person

“You are wrong because you are stupid and unethical.”

Appealing to emotion

“Agree with me because of this ‘sob story’.”

Appealing through force and fear

“Agree with me or else you will be sorry.”

slide90

Practice

Answer:

“Wax on, wax off.”

Question:

“If I can show that I can do this, why do I have to do 20 problems.”

slide91

2 4

X 4 5

1

2

0

2 4

X 4 5

0

2

16

+10

2

2

+2

8

2 4

X 4 5

8 0

3

8

2

+2

10

slide92

5 6 6

X 3 7 5

3

1

0

5 6 6

X 3 7 5

0

3

42

+35

8

+3

755

X 348

0

3

2

4

5 6 6

X 3 7 5

0 0

18

25

+42

8

3

9

+8

5 6 6

X 3 7 5

30 0

18

+ 35

5

9

+9

6

2

5 6 6

X 3 7 5

2 30 0

6

21

slide93

Practice

  • Skills are most useful when learned to the level of automaticity.
  • Mastering a skill requires a fair amount of focused practice.
  • While practicing, students should adapt and shape what they have learned
slide94

Skills and Processes (Practice)

Learn the Steps

At this point it really is just information.

This is when the learner understands the skill or process and takes ownership.

Shape and Adapt

The extent to which this happens will determine the learners’ control and retention of the skill or process.

Practice for Automaticity/ Fluency

slide95

STEPS

For a 3-digit number times a 3-digit number

5 4 3 2 1

For a 4-digit number times a 4-digit number

For a 5-digit number times a 5-digit number

slide96

Massed Practice

Distributed Practice

slide97

13”

15”

7”

Calculate the area of the parallelogram__________

12th Graders that gave correct answer-

8%

slide98

Practice Chart

Trial Number of items picked up and

(30 seconds each) moved 12 inches without dropping

1

2

3

4

slide99

Necessary—sometimes difficult---conversations

What is the learning goal?

Given the learning goal, is this assignment the right one?

Is this worth the time?

Are there aspects of the assignment that require knowledge/materials not available to all students?

slide102

Issues and Recommendations

  • Parent Invovlement
  • “RESPONSIBILITY”:
  • Students need to be taught the skills of organization, time management, stress management, goal setting, etc.

…when parents systematically help support this goal through structure and supervision around homework, then homework can foster personal responsibility.”

“In short, experience with homework, of itself, does not teach children responsibility…

…However, better-mediated experiences on the part of parents or tutors may yet bring the myth that “homework shapes responsibility” a bit closer to reality.

Xu, 1994, as reported in Lyn Corno, “Looking at Homework Differently”, (Elementary School Journal, May, 2000)

Lyn Corno, “Homework is a Complicated Thing” Educatonal Researcher,

slide103

Issues and Recommendations

  • Parent Involvement
  • Key points:
  • Parents might be able to help students develop skills related to “responsibility.”
  • Parent involvement should be kept to a minimum.
    • When parents are involved, it should be as an interested and supportive resource, not as a substitute for the teacher.
slide104

Issues and Recommendations

  • Parent Involvement
  • Key points:
  • Parents might be able to help students develop skills related to “responsibility.”
  • Parent involvement should be kept to a minimum.
  • When parents are involved, it should be as an interested and supportive resource, not as a substitute for the teacher.
slide105

..from Classroom Instruction That Works.

“While it is certainly legitimate to inform parents of the homework assigned to their children, it does not seem advisable to have parents help their children with homework.”

“Specifically, many studies show minimal and even negative effects when parents are asked to help students with homework.

slide106

Dear Ms. Curie,

Sally has worked hard for one hour on this assignment and cannot complete it. I told her to stop and assured her that she had completed her homework for tonight. She doesn’t really understand how to read bar graphs yet so she can’t go on. Please let her know if there will be more instruction in class or if she needs to come in for extra help.

When your child has worked hard but cannot complete the assignment in a reasonable time, and you are thinking about sitting down and helping her…….STOP. Get out a piece of paper and write the teacher a note….

slide108

Issues and Recommendations

  • Feedback
  • Key points:
  • The feedback research applies to homework assignments.
  • Feedback should help students understand if their work contributed to their achievement of learning goals.
  • Feedback should be timely.
slide109

If homework is assigned, it should be commented on.

FEEDBACK

Whole class

Small group

One-on-one

Correct answers

Sample answers

Criteria to apply

Oral

Written

slide110

Homework Assignments Issue: Feedback

A

B

You will receive a homework packet on Monday; it will be due on Friday. Schedule your time carefully so that you do not have too much to complete on any single evening.

You will receive a homework packet on Monday with homework assignments designated for each day of the week. Each morning, you will work in groups to go over the assignment due that day and clarify any confusions.

I will monitor the groups to record who completed the homework. You have the entire week’s assignments so that you can schedule your time and work ahead if you know that a specific evening is already busy for you.

Pros and Cons?

slide112

Homework Policies Issue: Accountability and Grading

If you do not do your homework, you will (not be allowed to go to recess) OR (you will have “homework club” after school the next day). You will work until the assignment is completed.

Each homework assignment not completed will be recorded as a 0. Each 0 will be averaged in as part of your grade in _________;

You, and I, will keep track of whether you complete the homework and a homework completion grade will be ____% of your overall grade in ____.

You, and I, will keep track of whether you complete your homework. If your assessments indicate you are not progressing toward the learning goals, we will have a conference to determine why. If we decide one reason is that you have not been completing homework, we (and perhaps your parents) will figure out how to help you to complete your homework.

What are the pro’s and con’s of each approach?

slide113

Issues and Recommendations

  • Accountability and Grading
  • Key points:
  • The major emphasis of accountability should be on the “learning”, more so than on the “doing.”
  • If homework completion is to be a factor in students’ overall grade, the weight of that factor should be consistently applied, clearly reported, and aligned with the school’s mission.
  • Homework should not be considered a reliable assessment of students’ learning.
slide115

Overall Grade?

Academic Grade:

??????

Non-Academic Grade:

Homework Completion?

Work Completion?

Class Participation?

slide116

Issues and Recommendations

  • Accountability and Grading
  • To maximize learning, all students should have scheduled breaks (recess, lunch, free period) during every school day—whether they have completed their homework or not.
slide117

Topics

  • Purpose
  • Feedback
  • Time
  • Parent Involvement
  • Accountability

Policy?

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