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Chapter 11 of Textbook. Books of the New Testament: An Overview. The New Testament : - See Table 11.3, “Approximate Order of Composition of New Testament Books,” p. 357 in Textbook (see also Box 11.1, “Organization of the Hebrew and Christian-Greek Scriptures,” p. 344 in Textbook .

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chapter 11 of textbook

Chapter 11 of Textbook

Books of the New Testament: An Overview

slide2

The New Testament:

- See Table 11.3, “Approximate Order of Composition of New Testament Books,” p. 357 in Textbook (see also Box 11.1, “Organization of the Hebrew and Christian-Greek Scriptures,” p. 344 in Textbook.

slide3

Introduction:

  • The NT consists of 27 books (see Table 11.3, p. 357);
  • The early Christians added these books to those of the Hebrew Scriptures (or Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures) to form what is now called the Christian Bible (see pp. 9-11 of Textbook);
  • Thus, the Christian Bible consists of an Old and a New Testament/Covenant.
slide4

The New Testament may be arranged:

    • Four Gospels (story of Jesus);
    • Book of Acts - a theological account of the early Church (“Church history”);
    • Letters of Paul and other Church leaders ; and
    • Book of Hebrews, Catholic Epistles, and an Apocalypse/Revelation.
    • (see Textbook, p. 344, Box 11.1).
slide5

The Gospels:

  • The word Gospel derives from the Greek evangelion, meaning “Good News”;
  • It is a new literary category created by the early Christian community;
  • Gospel is a proclamation about the person of Jesus…;
  • Thus, in the NT there are four versions of the one Gospel/ “Good News”.
slide6

The Evangelists:

  • The authors …. are called “Evangelists”;
  • The Evangelists are believers in the person of Jesus of Nazareth;
  • They proclaim the “Good News” about the person of Jesus;
  • Their purpose is theological (John 20.31);
slide7

The Gospels (contd.):

  • The Gospels are not biographies …. (see John 20.30);
  • The Evangelists focus on Jesus’ adult ministry and passion - suffering and death;
  • They provide very little information about Jesus’ early life;
  • They emphasize his public career;
  • They declare, “God works through the person of Jesus”;
  • They stress the redemptive activity of Jesus;
slide8

The Evangelists:

  • The Evangelists proclaim Jesus as the Messiah/“Anointed One”/Christos (see Textbook, pp. 333-36);
  • Jesus for them is the universal Saviour;
  • For the Evangelists, God makes the divine will known through the person of Jesus (see Hebrews 1.1-3);
slide9

The Gospels:

  • Composed 40-65 years after the death of Jesus (see Table 11.2: “Major Events in the NT History”, pp. 348-49);
  • They are four different attempts ….to say what was important about the Christ/Messiah/Anointed One;
  • The Gospels are theological works.
slide10

Acts:

  • Composed by the same author who wrote “the Gospel according to Luke”;
  • It shows the same religious preoccupations;
  • It is not a “history” of the early Christian Church in the sense of present-day understanding of history;
  • It was written ca. 80-90 C.E. (see, Table 11.2, p. 349).
slide11

Letters of Paul:

  • See Tables 11.2 (pp. 348) and Box 14.4 (p. 466) for “A Tentative Sequence of Events in Paul’s Life” - chronology on Paul and his letters;
  • Paul’s letters are the earliest documents of the NT;
  • Written between 50 and 62 C.E.;
  • They are written to newly found Churches in Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy;
slide14

Other NT Works:

  • Letter to the Hebrews;
  • Revelation/Apocalypse;
  • General (Catholic) Epistles (James; 1 and 2 Peter; 1, 2, and 3 John; and Jude)
  • etc. (See Table 11.2, p. 349 in Textbook).
slide15

The Synoptic Gospels:

  • The first three accounts of the Gospel;
  • Matthew, Mark, and Luke;
  • Why called Synoptic?
  • How do they differ from the “Gospel according to John”?
slide16

The Synoptic Problem (see Fig. 11.2, p. 351 in Textbook):

  • The first three Gospels resemble each other closely;
  • What is the nature of their relationship?
  • Which gospel account is the source for the others?
  • Thus, questions of authorship, chronological priority, dates of composition, etc.
slide17

The Two-Document Theory:

  • Source Criticism (see Textbook, pp. 29, 351);
  • Recognition that Mark was the source for the chronological framework in Matthew and Luke;
  • A second source that Matthew and Luke used;
  • This source, a collection of Jesus’ sayings, is called Q (from the German term for source (quelle);
  • Sources M and L;
  • See Figure 11.2, p. 351 in Textbook;
slide18

How the Written Gospels Came to Be - From Oral Preaching to Written Gospels:

  • Four stages are generally recognized (see Box 11.3, “From Oral Kerygma to Written Gospel”…p. 352 in Textbook):
  • Stage I: The Exclusively Oral Traditions Stage (30-70 C.E.):
    • The stage of Jesus’ preaching; and
    • His earliest followers’ preaching about him;
    • A period of about 40 years 30-70 C.E.;
    • The Kerygma (proclamation about Jesus);
slide19

Stage I: The Oral Stage (contd.):

  • This done originally in Aramaic - in Galilee, Judea, and nearby regions (Decapolis);
  • The message then taken to Greek-speaking areas; to other ethnic groups; religions;
  • What happens when you bring a message orally from one region and/or culture and proclaim it orally in a different language in another region and/or culture?
  • To another ethnic group?
  • To another religious group?
  • Can this explain why Jesus’ sayings are reported differently in different accounts of the Gospel?
slide22

Stage I: The Oral Stage (contd.):

  • The importance of Form Criticism (see Textbook, p. 353);
  • The identification and study of pericopes, or the individual, orally transmitted building blocks from which the longer Gospel account is constructed (see Textbook, pp. 29, 353, and G-36);
  • See, for example, the Gospel according to Mark;
  • The sitz im leben, that is, the “life-setting” or social circumstances from which stories about Jesus originated and were orally transmitted by the Early Church;
slide23

Stage I: The Oral Stage (contd.):

  • Missionary tours of Paul and associates;
  • Establishing of new Gentile, Greek-speaking churches in Asia Minor and Greece (40-60 C.E.).
slide24

Stage II: Period of Earliest Written Documents (50-70 C.E.):

  • Brief compilations of Jesus’ sayings (ca. 50 C.E.);
  • e.g., See Mark 4 and Matthew 13;
  • Q, quelle;
  • Q must be reconstructed from passages in Matthew and Luke;
  • e.g., Matthew 5-7 (“Sermon on the Mount”) and Luke 6 (“Sermon on the Plain”);
  • What was Q originally?
  • How does it present Jesus?
slide25

Stage III: Period of Jewish Revolt against Rome and the appearance of The First Canonical Gospel (66-70 C.E.):

  • Redaction Criticism (see Textbook, p. 355):
    • The redactor’s/author-editor’s importance in assembling, rearranging, and reinterpreting his sources;
    • How do Matthew and Luke use their sources, e.g., Mark and Q? (See Luke 1.1-4)
    • Mark and the Gospel genre/literary category (66-70 C.E.);
    • the transformation of the oral kerygma into a narrative about Jesus’ public career;
slide26

Stage IV: Period of The Production of New, Enlarged Editions of Mark (80-90 C.E.):

  • Composition of Matthew (80-85 C.E.) and Luke (80-90 C.E.);
  • Matthew and Luke used Mark, Q, and individual sources, namely M and L respectively (see Figure 11.2, p. 351);
slide27

Stage V: Period of Production of New Gospels Promoting an Independent (Non-Synoptic) Tradition (90-100 C.E.):

  • Composition of The Gospel According to John;
  • Second edition of the Gospel of Thomas (a non-canonical account of the Gospel).
slide28

Four Distinctive Portraits Of Jesus:

  • Each Gospel account is a distinctive portrait of Jesus;
  • Each is a reflection of the author’s concept of Jesus’ theological meaning;
  • Why four portraits?
  • Due to historical processes?
  • e.g., Gospel according to Mark;
  • e.g., Gospel according to John;
slide29

Questions For Review:

  • Five on p. 358;
  • Question for discussion and reflection: p. 358.
slide30

The Gospel According to Mark:

  • (N.B.: read The Gospel According to Mark.)
  • Five main divisions:
    • Prelude to the public ministry (1.1-13);
    • The Galilean ministry (1.14-8.26);
    • Journey from Caesarea Philippi to Jerusalem (8.27-10-52);
    • The Jerusalem ministry (11.1-15.47); and
    • The postlude: the empty tomb (16.1-8).
slide32

The Gospel According To Mark (contd.):

  • The first author to put the oral traditions about Jesus into a written form that is called “Gospel”;
  • The account cites few of Jesus’ “sayings”;
  • It emphasizes Jesus’ actions;
slide33

The Gospel According to Mark (contd.):

  • Historical Setting:
    • Who is the author of this account of the Gospel?
    • Was the Gospel written for a group undergoing severe testing (see, e.g., 8.34-38; 10.38-40)?
    • Is it related in any way to Nero’s persecution of early Christians in Rome?
    • What was the author’s relationship to the apostle Peter (Acts 12.12-25)?
    • To Paul (Philem. 24; Col. 4.10)?
slide35

Historical Setting (contd.):

  • Some scholars favour a Roman setting while others a Syrian or Palestinian one;
  • The parousia in the account;
  • Eschatological concerns;
  • The title, “The Gospel According to Mark”;
  • Author of the work is anonymous.
slide36

The Leading Characters In Mark’s Account:

  • see Box 9.3, p. 367 in textbook.
slide37

Mark’s Attitude Towards Jesus’ Close Associates:

  • To Jesus’ family and acquaintances (3.21; 3.31-35; 6.2-3; 6.6);
  • To the disciples (3.13-19; 4.35-41; 9.9-10; 10.35-41; 14.30; 14.66-72);
  • Why this negative attitude on the part of Mark?
  • Is Mark’s negative attitude in this regard related to his wish to portray Jesus alone as the one who does God’s work and declares God’s will?
slide39

The Geographical Arrangement of Mark’s Account:

  • A north-south or geographical arrangement:
    • First half takes place in Galilee:
      • Climax of this section: the Messiah (8.27-29).
    • Second half (after Ch. 8) deals with Jesus’ journey to Jerusalem where he is rejected and crucified:
      • Climax of this section: the Son of God (15.39).
    • See Box 9.4, p. 369 in textbook.
slide40

Mark presents two different aspects of Jesus’ story:

- 1) the presentation of Jesus in Galilee (a person of authority in word and deed);

- 2) a helpless figure on the cross in Judea.

slide41

Five Main Divisions of Mark’s Account:

    • 1)Prelude to Jesus’ Public Ministry (1.1-13):
  • - No background provided;
  • - “Here begins the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God” (1.1);
  • - Activity of John the Baptist (1.2-8);
  • - Jesus’ baptism (1.9-11);
  • - Jesus’ temptation (1.12-13).
slide43

2) The Galilean Ministry (1.14-8.26):

- Mark’s eschatological urgency;

- “The time has come, the kingdom of God is upon you; repent and believe the Gospel” (1.15);

- The eschaton is about to take place;

- A sense of urgency - the present tense used;

- The author uses the word “immediately” to connect pericopes;

- Jesus’ activity proclaims that history has reached its climactic moment;

slide44

2) The Galilean Ministry (1.14-8.26) (contd.):

- Jesus as “Son of Man” (see Box 9.6, p. 375 in textbook);

- Mark’s use of conflict stories;

- Jesus as healer

slide46

.

Jezreel Valley: To the West of the Sea of Galilee.

slide48

3) The Journey to Jerusalem: Jesus’ Predestined Suffering (8.27-10.52):

- Ch. 8 as pivotal to Mark’s account;

- Here Mark ties together several themes that deal with his vision of Jesus’ ministry; and

- what Jesus requires of those who follow him;

- Lack of understanding on the part of Jesus’ followers;

- The hidden quality of Jesus’ Messiahship;

- The necessity of suffering on the part of Jesus’ followers;

slide49

Ch. 8 (contd.):

- Peter’s recognition of Jesus as the Messiah (8.29);

- Jesus tells his disciples to keep this a secret;

- Jesus’ reluctance to have news of his miracles spread abroad - the Messianic Secret;

- the setting is Caesarea Philippi/Banias.

slide54

The Messianic Secret and Mark’s Theological Purpose:

- People could not know Jesus’ identity until after his mission was completed;

- Jesus had to be unappreciated in order to be rejected and killed (see 10.45);

- Jesus must suffer an unjust death to confirm and complete his Messiahship;

- This is the heart of mark’s Christology;

- Thus, the relationship between Peter’s confession that Jesus is the Messiah and Jesus’ prediction that he must go to Jerusalem to die (8.29-32).

slide55

Ch. 8 (contd.):

- A third idea introduced:

- True disciples must expect to suffer as Jesus did (see 8.27-34 and 10.32-45: what is required of a true disciple);

- To reign with Jesus means to imitate his suffering.

slide56

The Journey To Jerusalem: Jesus’ Predestined Suffering (8.27-10.52) (contd.):

- Jesus travels to Jerusalem via Transjordan.

slide58

4) The Jerusalem Ministry (11.1-15.47):

- For mark, Jesus makes only one visit to Jerusalem;

- Jesus is welcomed into Jerusalem (11.9-10);

- Jesus accepts a Messianic role;

- Jesus alienates himself from both the Roman and Jewish administrators;

- He arouses hostility;

- His actions in the temple (11.15-19);

- Confrontations and successes against the Pharisees, Herod’s party, and the Sadducees.

slide59

Jerusalem:

Outline of Old City.

slide63

4) The Jerusalem Ministry (11.1-15.47) (contd.):

- The first commandment of all (12.28-34);

- Jesus’ foretells the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple (Ch. 13 - The Little Apocalypse);

- Mark’s concern with predictions of Jesus’ return (13.5-6, 21-23);

- The tribulations of the disciples will be ended when the Son of Man returns to gather the faithful;

- In the meantime: “keep alert” (13.33); “be awake” (13.37).

slide64

4) The Jerusalem Ministry (11.1-15.47) (contd.):

- The Last Supper (14.12-25):

- Actually, a passover meal (see ex 11.1-13.16);

- Jesus gives the passover a new significance (14.22- 25);

- The origin of the Christian celebration of the Eucharist.

slide66

4) The Jerusalem Ministry (11.1-15.47) (contd.):

- Jesus’ Passion:

- Mark wishes his readers to see the disparity between Jesus’ appearance of vulnerability and the reality of his spiritual triumph;

- Jesus’ enemies are seemingly ridding the nation of a radical;

- In fact, they are making possible his saving death;

- All this is in accordance with God’s design.

slide67

Jesus’ Passion (contd.):

- Gethsemane;

- Mount of Olives;

- Caiaphas, the High Priest;

- Pontius Pilate;

- Barabbas;

- Simon of Cyrene.

slide71

Jesus’ Burial:

- Mary of Magdala as the link between Jesus’ death and burial and the discovery that the tomb is empty (see 15.40-41, 47 and 16.1);

- Joseph of Arimathaea.

slide75

5. The Empty Tomb (16.1-8):

- The women flee in terror (16.8);

- They say nothing to anyone for they were afraid (16.8).

- Thus, Mark’s account of the Good News ends abruptly.

slide77

By not including resurrection appearances, is Mark expecting a parousia, that is, a second coming or appearance of Christ to judge the world, punish the wicked, and redeem the world?

- Does Mark wish to emphasize that Jesus is absent?:

- He is present neither in the grave; nor as yet triumphal son of man.

- Is Jesus present in memories, and

- In his enduring power over the lives of his disciples?

slide78

Added Conclusions (16.9-19):

- Were many Christians unhappy with Mark’s inconclusiveness?

- If so, this could account for the heavy editing of Mark’s account;

- Some editors appended postresurrection appearances of Jesus;

- This made Mark’s account more consistent with Matthew and Luke (Mark 16.8b and 16.9-20).

Amen!

slide79

Questions for Review:

Questions 1, 2, 3, and 5 (do not do the one on parables) on p. 380;

Questions for Discussion and Reflection on p. 380.

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