Pos 339 439 09 20 2010
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POS 339/439: 09/20/2010. Website. http://faculty.roosevelt.edu/erickson/courses/pos339-439/ Course status: Presentation selection – make sure you get them in. Paper Assignment 1 due 9/29. Course agenda. Discussion of concepts introduced by readings.

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POS 339/439: 09/20/2010

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POS 339/439: 09/20/2010

  • Website.

    • http://faculty.roosevelt.edu/erickson/courses/pos339-439/

  • Course status:

    • Presentation selection – make sure you get them in.

    • Paper Assignment 1 due 9/29.

  • Course agenda.

    • Discussion of concepts introduced by readings.

  • Martin Chapter 4: Terror from Above State Terrorism.

  • Opening Viewpoint: State Terrorism as Domestic Policy in Central America.

    • Contras in Nicaragua.

    • Battalion 3-16 in Honduras.

    • ORDEN in El Salvador.

    • Guatemala – Plan Victoria 82.

    • State Terrorism in Middle East – Libya bombings and PFLP and Abu Nidal.

    • Sudan and Syria.


POS 339/439: 09/20/2010

  • Terrorism as foreign policy and terrorism as domestic policy.

  • Political violence by the stat is the most organized and far reaching application of terrorist violence.

  • Many resources available to the state exceeds extent of other types of terrorism.

  • Why do governments use terrorism as an instrument of policy?

    • Internationally state defines interests in a number of ways – states can choose to behave unilaterally or cooperatively, cautiously or aggressively.

    • Domestically – state’s interests involve the need to maintain internal security and order.

  • States choose from a range of overt and covert options.

  • Terrorism by states is characterized by official government support for political violence, repression, and intimidation.

  • State terrorism conducted by personnel and unofficial agents used and encouraged by the state.

  • Invasion of East Timor by Indonesia as an example of state terrorism.


POS 339/439: 09/20/2010

. State as Terrorist: A State Terrorism Paradigm.

  • Models of State Terrorism.

    • Sponsors of terrorism.

    • Enablers of terrorism.

    • Cooperators in counterterrorism.

  • State terrorism incorporates many types of violence.

    • Warfare.

    • Genocide.

    • Assassinations.

    • Torture.

  • Understanding State Sponsored Terrorism.

    • Patrice Lumumba People’s Friendship University.

    • Usually covert secret policy.

      • State patronage for terrorism.

      • State assistance for terrorism.

  • State Sponsorship: The Patronage Model.

    • Patronage in Foreign Policy Domain.


POS 339/439: 09/20/2010

  • US support for Contras state patronage model.

  • Patronage in Domestic Policy.

    • Rationalization.

    • Suppress clear and present danger to national security.

    • Maintain law and order during times of national crisis.

    • Protect fundamental cultural values that are threatened by subversives.

    • Restore stability to government institutions.

  • State Sponsorship: The Assistance Model.

    • Assistance in the foreign policy domain.

    • Support for politically violent proxy operating beyond its borders.

    • Plausible deniability built into the relationship between state and proxy.

    • Deny the link exists; admit link exists but product of rogue operation; admit or deny link but label as freedom fighters; blame movements adversary for creating environment of violence.


POS 339/439: 09/20/2010

  • Assistance in Domestic Policy Domain.

    • Blame adversary for breakdown in order and call on people to assist government in restoring order.

    • Proxy violence is evidence of popular support.

    • Call on parties to cease hostilities but blame violence on adversary.

    • Assure everyone that government is seeking to restore order but regime is unable to immediately end violence.

    • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution as example.

  • Violence Abroad: State Terrorism as Foreign Policy.

    • Latter half of 20th century many states used terrorism as foreign policy.

    • Advantages of state terrorism in foreign domain.

      • State terrorism is inexpensive.

      • State terrorism has limited consequences.

      • State terrorism can be effective.


POS 339/439: 09/20/2010

  • Range of state terrorism as foreign policy.

    • Ideological support.

    • Financial support.

    • Military support.

    • Operational support.

    • Initiating terrorist attacks.

    • Direct involvement in terrorist attacks.

  • Moral Support: Politically Sympathetic Sponsorship.

    • Example: Iran support for Hezbollah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and Hamas.

  • Technical Support.

    • Logistically supportive sponsorship – government provides aid and comfort to championed cause.

    • Example: Syrian support for Amal and Hezbollah.

  • Selective Participation.

    • Episode specific sponsorship.


POS 339/439: 09/20/2010

  • Active Participation: Joint Operations.

    • Phoenix Program: American and Vietnamese cooperation against Viet Cong.

  • Violence At Home: State Terrorism as Domestic Policy.

    • Paramilitaries and Death Squads.

    • Apartheid.

  • Legitimizing State Authority.

  • State Domestic Authority.

    • Unofficial repression.

    • Repression as policy.

    • Mass repression: Genocidal state terrorism.

  • Unofficial Repression: Vigilante Domestic State Terrorism.

  • Repression as Policy: Official Domestic State Terrorism.

  • Chapter Perspective 4.3.

    • Social Cleansing.

    • Ethnic Cleansing.


POS 339/439: 09/20/2010

  • Mass Repression: Genocidal Domestic State Terrorism.

  • Chapter Perspective 4.4 Anfal Campaign Domestic State Terrorism in Iraq.

  • Death Squads in Latin America.

  • Problem of Accountability: Monitoring State Terrorism.


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