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Solar Voltaic Energy. Outline. Overview of Solar Power How Photo-voltaic (PV) Cells Work How Solar PV Cells are Made Solar PV Applications Efficiencies Economics Facts & Trends Research. Solar Power Overview. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:The_Sun_w920607.jpg. PV Solar Radiation.

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Overview of Solar Power
  • How Photo-voltaic (PV) Cells Work
  • How Solar PV Cells are Made
  • Solar PV
    • Applications
    • Efficiencies
    • Economics
    • Facts & Trends
    • Research
pv solar radiation
PV Solar Radiation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

light the photovoltaic effect
Light & the Photovoltaic Effect
  • Certain semiconductor materials absorb certain wavelengths
    • The shorter the wavelength the greater the energy
    • Ultraviolet light has more energy than infrared light
  • Crystalline silicon
    • Utilizes all the visible spectrum plus some infrared radiation
  • Heat vs. electrical energy
    • Light frequencies that is too high or too low for the semiconductor to absorb turn into heat energy instead of electrical energy
cross section of pv cell
Cross Section of PV Cell

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

solar cell construction
Solar Cell Construction
  • Materials
    • Crystalline Silicon
    • Gallium Arsenide (more expensive)
  • Grown into large single-crystal ingots
  • Sawed into thin wafers
  • 2 wafers are bonded together (p-n junction)
  • Wafers grouped into panels or arrays

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

growing silicon ingots
Growing Silicon Ingots

Czochralski Process

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czochralski_process

drawing a silicon ingot
Drawing a Silicon Ingot

http://www.answers.com/topic/silicon

silicon ingots wafers
Silicon Ingots & Wafers

http://www.sumcosi.com/english/products/products2.html

computer chips on wafer
Computer Chips on Wafer

http://d0server1.fnal.gov/projects/silicon/www/svxwafer.jpeg

silicon solar cell
Silicon Solar Cell

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Solar_cell.png

solar pv systems
Cells are the building block of PV systems

Typically generate 1.5 - 3 watts of power

Modules or panels are made up of multiple cells

Arrays are made up of multiple modules

A typical array costs about $5 – $6/watt

Still need lots of other components to make this work

Typical systems cost about $8/watt

Solar PV Systems
solar panel
Solar Panel

Solar panel by BP Solar at a German autobahn bridge

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

spacecraft

International Space Station

Hubble Telescope

Mars Rover

Spacecraft
remote areas mexico
Remote Areas (Mexico)

A solar panel in Marla, Cirque de Mafate, Réunion

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

residential
Residential

http://www.californiasolarco.com/photos_html/grid_tied/rootop_system/nevada-city-2-4.html

commercial
Commercial

Solar Centre at Baglan Energy Park in South Wales

http://www.c-a-b.org.uk/projects/tech1.htm

solar cell efficiencies
Solar Cell Efficiencies
  • Typical module efficiencies ~12%
    • Screen printed multi-crystalline solar cells
  • Efficiency range is 6-30%
    • 6% for amorphous silicon-based PV cells
    • 20% for best commercial cells
    • 30% for multi-junction research cells
  • Typical power of 120W / m2
    • Mar/Sep equinox in full sun at equator

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

solar panel efficiency
Solar Panel Efficiency
  • ~1 kW/m2 reaches the ground (sunny day)
  • ~20% efficiency  200W/m2 electricity
  • Daylight & weather in northern latitudes
    • 100 W/m2 in winter; 250 W/m2 in summer
    • Or 20 to 50 W/m2 from solar cells
  • Value of electricity generated at $0.08/kWh
    • $0.10 / m2 / day OR $83,000 km2 / day

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

world largest pv solar plants
World Largest PV Solar Plants

[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

world solar power production
World Solar Power Production

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_panel

solar cell production volume
Solar Cell Production Volume

Sharp Corporation

http://sharp-world.com/solar/generation/images/graph_2004.gif

solar pv components
Inverter

Converts DC power from solar array to AC for use in your home

Wiring

Connects the system components

Batteries

Used to store solar-produced electricity for nighttime or emergency use

Mainly used for remote sites that aren’t tied into the electrical grid

Charge controller

Prevents batteries from being over charged

Disconnect switches

Allows power from a PV system to be turned off

Electrical meter

Measures electrical production and use

Often runs backward if system is attached to the electrical grid

Solar PV Components

Total system cost = ~$8.00 / watt

net metering
Net Metering
  • When your system produces more electricity than your home uses
    • electricity flows backward out to the grid
  • Meter runs backward and you get credit for the electricity you sell to the utility
solar pv dependencies
Solar PV Dependencies
  • Location, Location, Location !
  • Latitude
    • Lower latitudes better than higher latitudes
  • Weather
    • Clear sunny skies better than cloudy skies
    • Temperature not important
  • Direction solar arrays face
    • South preferred, east and west acceptable
  • Absence of shade
    • Trees, Flatirons, etc.
solar pv design key factors
Solar PV Design – Key Factors
  • Location
    • How much solar radiation does the system receive?
  • DC rating
    • How big is the system
solar pv design module
Solar PV Design – Module
  • Module Efficiency
    • How efficiently does the solar system convert solar radiation into DC power
    • Best retail systems approaching 17%
    • Holy Grail of solar PV research
  • DC to AC derate factor
    • How efficient is the system converting DC to AC power
solar pv array design
Solar PV Array Design
  • Array Flat Panel
    • Remains in a constant fixed position
  • Array tilt (equal to latitude best)
    • Increase solar radiation by 10-20% compared to 0% tilt
    • Sunnier locations benefit more
  • Array azimuth (180° best)
    • Directly south
solar pv array tracking
Solar PV Array Tracking
  • Array 1-axis tracking
    • Tracks sun across the sky during each day
    • Stays at a constant tilt
    • Increase solar radiation by 25-30% compared to no tracking
    • Sunnier locations benefit more
  • Array 2-axis tracking
    • Tracks sun across the sky during each day
    • Adjusts tilt – more in winter, less in summer
    • Increase solar radiation by 33-38%
    • Sunnier locations benefit more
pv design website
PV Design Website
  • National Renewable Energy Lab
  • PVWATTS
  • http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/PVWATTS/version2/
  • Examples
    • Portland (97229)
    • Phoenix (85034)
    • Boulder (80309)
solar pv energy payback
Solar PV Energy Payback
  • Expected lifetime of 40 years
  • Payback of 1-30 years
    • Typically < 5 years
  • Solar cells 6-30× energy required to make them

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

cost analysis
Cost Analysis
  • US retail module price = ~$5.00 / W (2005)
  • Installations costs = ~$3.50 / W (2005)
  • Cost for a 4 kW system = ~$17,000 (2006)
    • Without subsidies
    • Typical payback period is ~24 years
  • Honda 4 kW system = ~$12,500 (2007)
  • With subsidies
    • Payback is ~12 years

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

economic example 1 3
Economic Example 1/3
  • 4000 watt system @ 40o fixed tilt
  • $32,000 initial cost
  • 4000 watt (4 kW) system is about 23.5 m2
    • Assume 5.5 kWh / m2/day
  • 23.5 x 5.5 = 129.25 DC kWh/day
    • hitting the solar modules
economic example 2 3
Economic Example 2/3
  • Module Efficiency = 17%
    • 129.25 kWh/day x 0.17 = 21.97 DC kWh/day
  • Derate factor – 77%
    • Takes into account inefficiencies in the DC/AC conversion and internal module components
    • 21.97 DC kWh/day x 0.77 = 16.92 AC kWh/day
  • Output = ~17 kWh / day
economic example 3 3
Economic Example 3/3
  • Pay $32,000, save $555/year
    • 16.92 kWh/day x $0.09/kWh x 365 days/year
  • 1.7% return
  • Over 20 years @ 6%
    • Cost of Energy = $0.452/kWh
    • Compared to $0.09/kWh from Xcel
    • EXPENSIVE!
co amend 37 solar provision
CO Amend. 37 Solar Provision
  • $4.50 rebate/watt up to 10 kW
  • Combination rebate/REC for larger systems
    • REC = “Renewable Energy Credits”
  • Funded by a $0.63/month surcharge on all Xcel customer bills
  • $20 million/year program for 10 years
co amend 37 solar provision67
CO Amend. 37 Solar Provision
  • On-site solar requirement
    • 2007 – 2010: 0.06% of a retail electricity sales
    • 2011 – 2014: 0.12% of a retail electricity sales
    • 2015 – On: 0.2% of a retail electricity sales
    • Focus on Xcel
  • 44,000 kW of on-site solar by 2015
  • 1500 to 2000 new on-site solar installations
    • Depending on average size
    • $352 million in PV solar installation sales
    • $200 million in rebates
federal tax credit
Federal Tax Credit
  • 30% tax credit
    • Max of $2,000 for residential installations
    • No maximum for businesses
co cost analysis
CO Cost Analysis
  • 4,000 watt system
  • $32,000 initial cost
  • $18,000 Amendment 37 rebate
    • 4000 x $4.50
  • $2,000 Federal Tax Credit
    • ($32,000 - $18,000) x 0.30 = $4,200
    • However, maximum of $2,000
  • After rebate/tax credit cost
    • $32,000 - $18,000 - $2,000 = $12,000
return on investment
Return on Investment
  • For $12,000 you can save $555/year
    • 4.6% return
  • Over 20 years @ 6%
    • Cost of Energy = $0.169/kWh
    • Compared to $0.09/kWh from Xcel
    • Still EXPENSIVE! – $$$
emerging pv techologies
Emerging PV Techologies
  • Cells made from gallium arsenide
    • molecular beam epitaxy
    • 35% efficiencies have been achieved
  • Non-silicon panels using carbon nanotubes
    • Quantum dots embedded in special plastics
    • May achieve 30% efficiencies in time
  • Polymer (organic plastics) solar cells
    • Suffer rapid degradation to date

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

thin film solar cells
Thin Film Solar Cells
  • Use less than 1% of silicon required for wafers
  • Silicon vapor deposited on a glass substrate
  • Amorphous crystalline structure
    • Many small crystals vs. one large crystal

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cells

flexible pv cells
Flexible PV Cells

http://www.princeton.edu/~chm333/2002/spring/SolarCells/potential%20images/flexible_pv_cell.jpg

slide76

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Nrel_best_research_pv_cell_efficiencies.png

benefits costs of solar pv
Benefits/Costs of Solar PV
  • Reduces pollution
  • Stabilizes electricity costs
  • Lessens dependence on fossil fuels
  • Increases self-reliance
  • Can size for small, on-site installations
  • Not grid dependent
  • Currently expensive $$$$$
solar thermal collectors
Solar Thermal Collectors
  • Focus the sun to create to create heat
    • Boil water
    • Heat liquid metals
  • Use heated fluid to turn a turbine
  • Generate electricity
solar thermal dish collector
Solar Thermal Dish Collector

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarthermal/solarthermal.html

solar power towers
Solar Power Towers

http://solstice.crest.org/renewables/re-kiosk/solar/solar-thermal/case-studies/central-receiver.shtml

solar trough scheme
Solar Trough Scheme

http://solarbridge.org/pedestrians.html

parabolic trough cross section
Parabolic Trough Cross-Section

http://www.irishsolar.com/howdoes/how_does_1.htm

solar thermal collector trends
Solar Thermal Collector Trends

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarthermal/solarthermal.html

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