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Nutrient Bioavailability during Reproduction. Janet C. King, Ph.D. Director and Professor Western Human Nutrition Research Center University of California, Davis. Bioavailability. Fraction of the ingested nutrient that is used for normal physiological functions or storage.

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Nutrient Bioavailability during Reproduction

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Nutrient bioavailability during reproduction l.jpg

Nutrient Bioavailability during Reproduction

Janet C. King, Ph.D.

Director and Professor

Western Human Nutrition Research Center

University of California, Davis


Bioavailability l.jpg

Bioavailability

Fraction of the ingested nutrient that is used for normal physiological functions or storage


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Endogenous Factors Influencing Bioavailability

  • Body ‘status’ of the nutrient, i.e. need

    • growth

    • pregnancy

    • lactation

    • previous intake of the nutrient

  • Gut Function

    • Efficiency of digestion

    • Transit time

    • Presence of disease


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Effect of Pregnancy and Lactation on the Bioavailability of:

  • Calcium and Zinc

    • Regulated by Gastrointestinal Tract

  • Selenium

    • Regulated by Kidney


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Calcium and Zinc Needs for Pregnancy and Lactation

PG + 6 Mo Lactation% Bone

Calcium65 g 7%

Zinc370 mg 80%

PG + 24 Mo Lactation% Bone

Calcium140 g14%

Zinc640 mg 140%


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Sources of Calcium or Zinc for Pregnancy and Lactation

*Diet Intake

FETUS/MILK

SMALL

INTESTINE

BONE

Absorption

Accretion

*Net retention

ECF/PLASMA

*Mobilization

Endog.Secretion

Resorption

*Net

retention

Filtration

Reabsorption

KIDNEY


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Calcium and Zinc Metabolism during Pregnancy and Lactation: Longitudinal Studies

L. D. Ritchie, E. B. Fung, L.R. Woodhouse, C. Donangelo, R. Roehl, S.A.Abrams, B.Halloran, C. Cann, M. Van Loan, J.R. Turnlund, and J.C. King


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Study Design

DietXXXXXX

AbsXXXXXX

BloodXXXXXX

UrineXXXXXX

MilkX

Concep-

tion

Birth 2

wks

8-10

Wks

24-

26

Wks

34-

36

Wks

6 mo

after

menses

7-9

Wks

Pre-

PG

Pregnancy Lactation


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Changes in Calcium and Zinc Intakes


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Fractional Absorption of Calcium and Zinc


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Changes in Urinary Excretion of Calcium and Zinc


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Changes in Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Content: QCT


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Calcium Homeostasis:

Late Pregnancy Adjustments

Diet Intake: +300 mg Ca/d

FETUS

SMALL

INTESTINE

BONE

+300 mg/d

Net Absorption:

380 mg/d

ECF/PLASMA

Filtration:

+80 mg/d

KIDNEY


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Zinc Homeostasis:

Late Pregnancy Adjustments

Diet Intake: +3 mg Zn/d

Fetus

SMALL

INTESTINE

BONE

0.7 mg/d

Net Absorption:

1.0 mg/d

ECF/PLASMA

Filtration:

+ 0.3 mg/d

KIDNEY


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Calcium Homeostasis:

Lactation Adjustments

Diet Intake: +65 mg Ca/d

MILK

SMALL

INTESTINE

BONE

215 mg/d

ECF/PLASMA

Net Resorption

120 mg/d

Reabsorption

95 mg/d

KIDNEY


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Zinc Homeostasis:

Lactation Adjustments

Diet Intake: +1 mg Zn/d

Milk

SMALL

INTESTINE

BONE

2.0 mg/d

Net Absorption:

1.3 mg/d

ECF/PLASMA

Net Resorption:

0.9 mg/d

Filtration:

0.2 mg/d

KIDNEY


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Conclusion

  • The fraction of ingested calcium and zinc retained increases during pregnancy and lactation.

    • Adjustments for pregnancy differ from lactation.

    • Adjustments for calcium differ from zinc


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Effect of Low Calcium Intakes on Calcium Metabolism during Pregnancy and Lactation

  • Nine parous women from Rio de Janeiro

  • Usual calcium intake: 440 mg/d

  • Calcium intake increased by 75 mg/d in LP

  • No supplemental calcium

  • Studied at 10-12, 34-36 wks gestation; 7-9 wks lactation


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Effect of Maternal Status on Calcium Absorption


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Effect of Maternal Status on Urinary Calcium Excretion


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A Comparison of Selenium Bioavailability in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women

Christine A. Swanson, Donald C. Reamer, Claude Veillon, Janet C. King, and Orville A. Levander


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Selenium Balance

NP (n=6)EP (n=6)LP (n=4)

Se Intake, µg/d 150 154 158

Fecal Se, µg/d 28 33 28

Urinary Se, µg/d 111 100 96

Balance, µg/d 11 21 34


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Recommended Multivitamin Mineral Supplement for Pregnancy*

NutrientAmount

Iron30 mg

Zinc15 mg

Copper 2 mg

Calcium 250 mg

Vitamin B6 2 mg

Folate 300 µg

Vitamin C 50 mg

Vitamin D 5 µg

* IOM, 1990


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Gaps in Knowledge

  • Bioavailability of chemical forms of nutrients in supplements

  • Interaction of nutrients provided in prenatal supplements

  • Effect of food on the bioavailability of nutrients in prenatal supplements

  • UL for nutrients during pregnancy and lactation


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