Karl marx historical materialism
Download
1 / 35

Karl Marx - Historical Materialism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 275 Views
  • Updated On :

Karl Marx - Historical Materialism. Marx & Historical Materialism. 1) History of Marx & Marxism 2) Influences 3) Basic concepts (Aims of sociology, human nature, historical materialism, class struggle) 4) Mode of production 5) Social Change: Revolution 6) Capitalism & Communism

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Karl Marx - Historical Materialism' - Pat_Xavi


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Karl marx historical materialism l.jpg

Karl Marx -Historical Materialism


Marx historical materialism l.jpg
Marx & Historical Materialism

1) History of Marx & Marxism

2) Influences

3) Basic concepts

(Aims of sociology, human nature,

historical materialism, class struggle)

4) Mode of production

5) Social Change: Revolution

6) Capitalism & Communism

7) Evaluation


History of marx marxism l.jpg
History of Marx & Marxism

  • Karl Marx (1818-1883)

  • Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)

  • Marx: joins radical movement; exiled from Germany; goes to Paris; goes to London & writes main works

  • Engels: factory owner; socialist; scholar; aids Marx financially

  • Both: important figures in the Socialist International


Important writings l.jpg
Important Writings

EARLY: more about philosophy

  • Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts (1844)

    MIDDLE: more about politics

  • The Communist Manifesto (1848)

    (with Engels)

    LATER: more about economics

  • Das Kapital (‘Capital’) (1867)


Influences l.jpg
Influences

Theory: German Philosophy

  • Hegel: social change comes through social struggles and conflicts (dialectics)

  • Feuerbach: deal with the “real” world, not just ideas about it (materialism)

    Analysing economy: British political economy

  • Adam Smith: study the division of labour

    Politics: French Socialism

    - Saint-Simon: must create a new society, based on cooperation between classes, not conflict


Basic concepts l.jpg
Basic Concepts

1) Aim of ‘sociology’ (Historical Materialism):

  • Create knowledge criticalof existing society

  • Inform the working classes of their oppression

  • Encourage revolution – abolition of capitalist society

  • Build new socialist, then communist, society


Slide7 l.jpg

2) Human nature

Human being is fundamentally asocial animal

(agreement with Durkheim)

Human naturechangesover time:

- shaped by particular societies

(e.g. human nature in capitalism: selfish

human nature in communism: cooperative)


Slide8 l.jpg

Part of human natureremains constant:

- Humanscreative / creativity inmaking things

- Making things creatively allowsself-expression

  • Humanslike working(if allowed to do so freely & creatively; but not if forced to)

  • Good society: allows creativity in work

  • Bad society: forced to work, work uncreative


Slide9 l.jpg

3) Historical Materialism

  • Always see the ‘material’ aspects of society as the most important

  • The ‘ideal’ elements of society are less important

  • (Contrast with Durkheim and, partly, Weber)


Slide10 l.jpg

‘Ideal’ aspects:

Ideas and beliefs (e.g. morals and religion)

Ways of thinking

‘Culture’

(Emphasis on ‘ideal’ comes from Hegel)


Slide11 l.jpg

Marx’s breakthrough

Concentrate on ‘material’ aspects:

- people making things (production)

- people working (labour)

  • people acting on raw materials to make goods

  • humans transforming Nature for their use


Slide12 l.jpg

Historical Materialism

Materialism:

  • looks at material factors in society

  • emphasises production and labour over ‘ideal’ factors

    Historical:

  • looks at changes over time in material factors

  • social change produced by changes in material factors

  • Human history = changes in how people work & make things


Slide13 l.jpg

4) Class and class struggle

Two basic types of society:

  • Class-less societies (e.g. communism)

  • Class-based societies (e.g. capitalism)

    Within class-based societies:

  • Classes are themost importantsocial groups

  • Different classes areantagonisticto each other


Slide14 l.jpg

Classes are antagonistic to each other as each class has its own interests

Class interest: to be the most powerful group in society

(especially in terms of wealth)

Class struggle: classes always in conflict with each other to be the most powerful

Human history – driven by conflicts between classes; classes win, classes lose


Slide15 l.jpg

Dominant class(es) Subordinate class(es)

Rulers Ruled

Leaders Followers

Power: Powerless:

political & economic politically/economically

Political;

Control the government Ruled by government

Economic:

Control production Carry out production

Controllers of economy Workers

Economy benefits them Exploited


Mode of production l.jpg
Mode of Production

ECONOMIC BASE

Forces Relations

of production of production

FUNCTIONING---------------------------------- SHAPES

SOCIAL SUPERSTRUCTURE

Ways of thinking, values, ideas

Social institutions


Mode of production 1 l.jpg
Mode of Production (1)

Most important idea of Marx (in later writings)

Production = making things

Production is essential:

food, clothes, shelter, etc.

Making things = transforming Nature

Making things = using TOOLS to transform RAW MATERIALS into useable GOODS

Consumption = using those goods (& so staying alive)


Mode of production 2 l.jpg
Mode of Production (2)

Production is a SOCIAL ACTIVITY

Individual humans cannot make much on their own

- Must work cooperatively with others

- Division of labour: different people have different jobs

- Production has to be managed

Different forms of management = different types of society


Mode of production 3 l.jpg
Mode of Production (3)

Production is a SOCIAL ACTIVITY

In class-based societies:

  • Ruling class controls production

  • Ruling class OWN tools, raw materials and finished good (class of OWNERS)

  • Subordinate classes do the actual work (class of NON-OWNERS) (workers)

  • Division of labour:

    OWNERS & NON-OWNERS

  • Ruling class reaps the benefits

  • Subordinate classes lose out


Mode of production 4 l.jpg
Mode of Production (4)

Most important things in society are

MATERIAL FACTORS (production, work, division of labour)

Less important are IDEAL FACTORS (ideas and beliefs)

ECONOMIC BASE (primary)

shapes

SOCIAL SUPERSTRUCTURE (secondary)


Slide21 l.jpg

ECONOMIC BASE

FORCES ofRELATIONS of

PRODUCTIONPRODUCTION

Scientific knowledge Social relations

Technological knowledge which control &

Technology (tools) organize production

Raw materials

Labour force (people) Class of OWNERS controls class of NON-OWNERS (workers)


Slide22 l.jpg

SOCIAL SUPERSTRUCTURE

1) Ways of thinking, values, ideas

(“Forms of social consciousness”)

(“Ideologies”)

2) Social institutions

  • Religion

  • Family

  • Education

  • Government / the State


Slide23 l.jpg

ECONOMIC BASE

shapes

SOCIAL SUPERSTRUCTURE

BASE controlled by RULING CLASS

SO

SUPERSTRUCTURE controlled by

RULING CLASS too

  • ‘Dominant ideologies’ reflect ruling class interests

  • Dominant ideologies justify rule of the rulers

  • Social institutions work in ruling class interests


Slide24 l.jpg

Social institutions work in ruling class interests

(Marxist functionalism)

Family:

  • instils dominant ideologies in young

  • breeds and looks after workers

    Education: instils dominant ideologies in young

    Media: spreads dominant ideologies

    Government: controls NON-OWNERS / protects OWNERS’ interests / ensures social stability


Mode of production25 l.jpg
Mode of Production

ECONOMIC BASE

Forces Relations

of production of production

FUNCTIONING---------------------------------- SHAPES

SOCIAL SUPERSTRUCTURE

Ways of thinking, values, ideas

Social institutions


Types of mode of production l.jpg
Types of Mode of Production

1) Primitive communism

(primitive society, no classes, very low division of labour, all work together)

2) Ancient mode of production

(ancient Greece and Rome, aristocracy and slaves, slaves do most of the work)

3) Feudalism (medieval Europe, aristocratic lords and peasants, peasants do all the work)

4) Capitalism

5) Socialism / Communism


Social change revolution l.jpg
Social Change: Revolution

Social change = transition from one mode of production to another

That transition entails a revolution

Revolutions occur in the ECONOMIC BASE

Forces of production change, transforming relations of production

Changes in BASE lead to changes in SUPERSTRUCTURE: whole society transformed


Revolution from feudalism to capitalism l.jpg
Revolution: from feudalism to capitalism

FEUDALISM’S ECONOMIC BASE

ForcesRelations

of production of production

Agriculture Aristocratic lords & peasants

------------------------------------------

FEUDALISM’S SOCIAL SUPERSTRUCTURE

Ways of thinking: Catholic Christianity

Social institutions: Catholic Church, family


Revolution from feudalism to capitalism29 l.jpg
Revolution: from feudalism to capitalism

CHANGING ECONOMIC BASE

(happening from 16th to 19th centuries)

ForcesRelations

of production of production

Industrialism Power of aristocratic (factory production) lords taken over by a new class:

Produced by: capitalists (bourgeoisie)

Scientific innovations

Technological developments Peasants move to cities

Become workers infactories (proletariat)


Capitalism l.jpg
CAPITALISM

CAPITALISM’S ECONOMIC BASE

ForcesRelations

of production of production

Industrialism Capitalists & proletarians

------------------------------------------

CAPITALISM’S SOCIAL SUPERSTRUCTURE

Ways of thinking: capitalist ideologies

(religion no longer required)

(Capitalism allows individual freedom, democracy, social mobility, etc.)

Social institutions: family, media, government


Capitalism today l.jpg
CAPITALISM TODAY?

CAPITALISM’S ECONOMIC BASE

ForcesRelations

of production of production

Post-Industrialism Capitalists

(service sector, Managerial class

computers & IT, Proletarians stock markets) (white collar, McWorkers)

------------------------------------------

CAPITALISM’S SOCIAL SUPERSTRUCTURE

Ways of thinking: capitalist ideologies

(social mobility, meritocracy, consumerism)

Social institutions: media, welfare state


From capitalism to communism l.jpg
From Capitalism to Communism

  • Forces of production develop, change relations of production

    (technology develops – no need for manual labour – no need for a working class)

    2) Capitalism contradictory

    (capitalist seek profit, always in competition with each other, eventually no profits to be made, system falls apart)

    3) Proletariat come to realise they are being exploited: revolution


Communist mode of production l.jpg
Communist Mode of Production

ECONOMIC BASE

ForcesRelations

of production of production

Highly developed Classes abolished

machines doing most

routine work All work together in cooperation

Humans working All contribute to society

freely & creatively All get what they need

------------------------------------------

SUPERSTRUCTURE

Ways of thinking: end of ideologies, truth

Social institutions: ‘withering away of the state’: communities govern themselves; true democracy


Evaluation l.jpg
Evaluation

1) Overemphasises ‘material’ over ‘ideal’ factors

- things like religion just as ‘real’ as work

2) ‘Reductionist’

  • oversimplifies a complex reality

  • explains everything in terms of production & classes (but not all things can be explained that way)

    3) Overly politicised

  • not really social science - too biased

  • more like propaganda & wishful thinking


Evaluation 2 l.jpg
Evaluation (2)

1) Production at the heart of human life

2) Outdated? Still applicable:

  • We still live in capitalist society

  • Marx’s ideas can be reworked to fit today’s conditions

    3) Requires sociologist to be highly critical of current society

  • reject dominant ideologies

  • get at deeper truths


ad