Karl marx
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Karl Marx. Created by Alexandria Powell. Karl Marx Biography.

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Karl Marx

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Karl marx

Karl Marx

Created by Alexandria Powell


Karl marx biography

Karl Marx Biography

Karl Heinrich Marx was born into a comfortable middle class home in Trier on the river Moselle in Germany on May 5, 1818. At the age of seventeen, Marx enrolled in the Faculty of Law at the University of Bonn. At Bonn he became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen. The following year Marx’s father sent him to the more serious University of Berlin where he remained four years. Marx became a member of the Young Hegelian movement. In October 1842, he became the editor of the newspaper Colegne. Marx had six children and later lost three of them due to the poor conditions he lived in. He was influenced by Immanuel Kant, Ludwig Feuerbach, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Charles Fourier . Throughout his life he was formally known as a historical materialist, historian, revolutionary , philosopher, and a social scientist.On March 14, 1883 Karl Marx died and was buried at Highgate Cemetery in North London. All of Marx’s thinking's are known as Marxism. He was a major figure in the history of economic and philosophical thought, and a great social prophet.


Karl marx ideas

Karl Marx Ideas

  • Alienation

  • Communism

  • Exploitation

  • Economics

  • History

  • Historical Materialism

  • Ideology

  • Morality


Alienation

Alienation

  • Alienation is when the worker that becomes alien to his work but at the same time also a alien to himself. Extreme separation from one's own nature, from the products of one's labor, or from social reality, which often results in an indifference or outright aversion toward some aspect of life that might otherwise be attractive and significant. Karl Marx believed that alienation is a systematic result of capitalism. Workers in a capitalistic economic system become trapped in a vicious circle: the harder they work, the more resources in the natural world are appropriated for production, which leaves fewer resources for the workers to live on, so that they have to pay for their own livelihood out of their wages, to earn which they must work even harder. Workers are alienated in several distinct ways: from their products as externalized objects existing independently of their makers; form the natural world out of which the raw material of these products has been appropriated; from their own labor, which becomes a grudging necessity instead of a worthwhile activity; and from each other as the consumers of the composite products. These dire conditions, according to Marx, are the invariable consequences of industrial society.


Alienation cont

Alienation cont.

  • Mark depicts the worker under capitalism as suffering from four types of alienated labor. First, from the product which as soon as it is created is taken away from its producer. Second, in productive activity (work) which is experienced as a torment. Third, from species-being, for humans produce blindly and not in accordance with their truly human powers. Finally from other human beings, where the relation of exchange replaces mutual need. Mark states, "The worker becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces, the more his production increases in power and range. The worker becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he creates. With the increasing value of the world of things proceeds in direct proportion to the devaluation of the world of men. Labor produces not only commodities: it produces itself and the worker as a commodity and does so in the proportion in which it produces commodities generally.” Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts.


Communism

Communism

  • Communism is the inevitable end to the process of evolution begun with feudalism and passing through capitalism and socialism. Communism was a world in which each gave according to their abilities, and received according to their needs. It is desirable because it entails the full realization of human freedom. Religion in particular is nothing more than human creation with its own social origins and consequences: it gives expression to human suffering without offering any relief from it by disguising its genuine sources in social and economic injustice. Even philosophy, as an abstract discipline, is pointless unless it is transformed or actualized by direct application to practice. Marx maintained that progress would best be founded on a proper understanding of industry and the origins of wealth, together with a realistic view of social conflict. Struggles between distinct economic classes, with the perpetual possibility of revolution, is the inevitable fate of European society. Marx and Engels argued that communism would not emerge from capitalism in a fully developed state, but would pass through a "first phase" in which most productive property was owned in common, but with some class differences remaining. The "first phase" would eventually give way to a "higher phase" in which class differences were eliminated, and a state was no longer needed.


Exploitation

Exploitation

  • Exploitation is when people still live under in human conditions while they continue to produce commodities that make capitalist richer and richer. Marx’s argued that the greater the “freedom” of the market, the greater the power of capital, and the greater the scale of exploitation. Normal exploitation is based in three structural characteristics of capitalist society:

  • The ownership of the means of production by a small minority in society, the capitalists;

  • The inability of non-property-owners (the workers, proletarians) to survive without selling their labor-power to the capitalists

  • The state, which uses its strength to protect the unequal distribution of power and property in society.


The german ideology

The German Ideology

  • The German Ideology was written Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in 1845. The German Ideology presents a notion of history, that it is solely a matter of studying the results of material need in a sort of material dialectic, probably has much merit, it is clear (at least with hindsight) that the version of Communism presented is just silly. Yet, for good and for ill, there has probably never been a text which has had so mighty an influence on the progress of humanity. Quote: “In communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticize after dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, herdsman or critic.”


Economics

Economics

  • Capitalism is based on his version of the labor theory of value, and includes that analysis of capital profit as the extraction of surplus value from the exploited proletariat. It involves not merely the exchange of commodities, but the advancement of capital, in the form of money, with the purpose of generating profit through the purchase of commodities and their transformation into other commodities which can command a higher price, and thus yield a profit. A commodity is defined as a useful external object, produced for exchange on a market. The conditions for commodity production are the existence of a market, in which exchange can take place, and a social division of labor, in which different people produce different products, without which there would be no motivation for exchange. The labor theory of value states that “the value of an exchangeable good or service lies in the amount of labor required to produce it; the source of profits under capitalism, then, is value added by workers not paid out in wages.” Marx claimed that just as value presented itself in two forms—use value and exchange value—labor had to forms as well. First is concrete labor; this labor creates goods for a particular purpose which translates into use values. Second is abstract labor; the main feature of the object created in this type of labor is its price, is exchange value. Marx labor theory of value asserts that the value of a commodity is determined by the quantity of socially necessary labor time required to produce it. The division of labor, or the distribution of work and ownership is called society’s production relations.


Das kapital capital

Das Kapital (Capital)

  • The Das Kapitalwas Marx first novel in 1867. It is a three volumes. It explored the exploration the relationship between labor, profit, and the distribution of wealth. He claimed that humor labor is the source of all added value. He addresses a myriad of topics, but is most generally trying to present a systematic account of the nature, development, and future of the capitalist system. There is a strong economic focus to this work, and Marx addresses the nature of commodities, wages and the worker-capitalist relationship, among other things. Much of this work tries to show the ways in which workers are exploited by the capitalist mode of production. He also provides a history of past exploitations. Marx argues that the capitalist system is ultimately unstable, because it cannot endlessly sustain profits. Thus, it provides a more technical background to some of his more generally accessible works.


Das kapital capital cont

Das Kapital (Capital) cont.

  • Marx argues that commodities have both a use-value and an exchange-value, and that their exchange-value is rooted in how much labor-power went into them. While traditionally people bought commodities in order to use them, capitalists use commodities differently. Their final goal is increased profit. Therefore, they put out money and buy commodities, in order to sell those commodities for a profit. The cycle then repeats itself. The reason why the capitalists are able to make a profit is that they only need to pay workers their value (how much it takes to keep them functional), but the workers produce more than that amount in a day. Thus, the workers are exploited. The capitalists are able to do this because they have more power, and control the means of production. Furthermore, the workers' character is negatively affected by the system. They don't own the products of their labor, and the repetitive work they have to do makes them little more than machines.


History

History

  • History was a series of class struggles between owners of capital (capitalists) and (the proletariat) workers. As wealth became more concentrated in the hangs of a few capitalists, he thought, the ranks of an increasingly dissatisfied proletariat would swell, leading to bloody revolution and eventually a classless society. Marx stated that world history is the creation of human labor. He believed that in all phases of history there has always been a conflict two dominant classes of society. Slave society: it has conflict between free citizen.Feudal society: it has conflicts between feudal lord and (aristocrat and citizen). Capitalists society: it has conflicts between capitalists and the workers. Mark stated, “History is not like some individual person, which uses men to achieve its ends. History is nothing but the actions of men in pursuit of their ends.”


History cont

History cont.

  • According to Karl Marx, history develops in accordance with the following observations:

  • Social progress is driven by progress in the material, productive forces a society has at its disposal (technology, labor, capital goods, etc.)

  • Humans are inevitably involved in production relations (roughly speaking, economic relationships or institutions ), which constitute our most decisive social relations.

  • Production relations progress, with a degree of inevitability, following and corresponding to the development of the productive forces.

  • Relations of production help determine the degree and types of the development of the forces of production. For example, capitalism tends to increase the rate at which the forces develop and stresses the accumulation of capital.

  • Both productive forces and production relations progress independently of mankind's strategic intentions or will.

  • The superstructure -- the cultural and institutional features of a society, its ideological materials -- is ultimately an expression of the mode of production (which combines both the forces and relations of production ) on which the society is founded.

  • Every type of state is a powerful institution of the ruling class; the state is an instrument which one class uses to secure its rule and enforce its preferred production relations (and its exploration) onto society.

  • State power is usually only transferred from one class to another by social and political upheaval.

  • When a given style of production relations no longer supports further progress in the productive forces, either further progress is strangled, or 'revolution' must occur.

  • The actual historical process is not predetermined but depends on the class struggle, especially the organization and consciousness of the working class.


Communist manifesto

Communist Manifesto

  • Communist Manifesto was created in 1848. The Communist Manifesto reflects an attempt to explain the goals of Communism, as well as the theory underlying this movement. It argues that class struggles, or the exploitation of one class by another, are the motivating force behind all historical developments. Class relationships are defined by an era's means of production. However, eventually these relationships cease to be compatible with the developing forces of production. At this point, a revolution occurs and a new class emerges as the ruling one. This process represents the "march of history" as driven by larger economic forces. Modern Industrial society in specific is characterized by class conflict between the bourgeoisie and proletariat. However, the productive forces of capitalism are quickly ceasing to be compatible with this exploitative relationship. Thus, the proletariat will lead a revolution. However, this revolution will be of a different character than all previous ones: previous revolutions simply reallocated property in favor of the new ruling class. However, by the nature of their class, the members of the proletariat have no way of appropriating property. Therefore, when they obtain control they will have to destroy all ownership of private property, and classes themselves will disappear.


Communist manifesto1

Communist Manifesto

  • The Manifesto argues that this development is inevitable, and that capitalism is inherently unstable. The Communists intend to promote this revolution, and will promote the parties and associations that are moving history towards its natural conclusion. They argue that the elimination of social classes cannot come about through reforms or changes in government. Rather, a revolution will be required. The Communist Manifesto has four sections. In the first section, it discusses the Communists' theory of history and the relationship between proletarians and bourgeoisie. The second section explains the relationship between the Communists and the proletarians. The third section addresses the flaws in other, previous socialist literature. The final section discusses the relationship between the Communists and other parties. Wealth became concentrated in the hands of the capitalists, the proletariats would become more and more dissatisfied. The Communist Manifesto is the most read out of Marx’s work.


Historical material ism

Historical Material ism

  • Historical materialism is centered around the idea that forms of society rise and fall as they further and then impede the development of human productive power. It looks for the causes of developments and changes in human societies in the way in which humans collectively make the means to live, thus giving an emphasis, through economic analysis, to everything that co-exists with the economic base of society. Historical materialism starts from the view that in order to exist human beings collectively work on nature to produce the means to life. Not all human beings, however, do the same work; there is a division of labor in which people not only do different jobs, but some people live from the work of others by owning the means of production. How this is done depends on the type of society.

  • Historical materialism can be seen to rest on the following principles:

  • 1. The basis of human society is how humans work on nature to produce the means of subsistence.

  • 2. There is a division of labor into social classes (relations of production) based on property ownership where some people live from the labor of others.

  • 3. The system of class division is dependent on the mode of production.

  • 4. Society moves from stage to stage when the dominant class is displaced by a new emerging class.


Historical materialism cont

Historical Materialism cont.

  • Historical materialism uses ‘materialism’ to make three separate points, where the truth or falsehood of one point does not affect the others. First there is metaphysical or philosophical materialism, in which matter-in-motion is primary and thought about matter-in-motion, or thought about abstractions, is secondary. Second, there is belief that economic processes form the material base of society upon which institutions and ideas derive and rest. While the economy is the base structure of society, it does not follow that everything in history is determined by the economy, just as every feature of a house is not determined by its foundations. Third, there is the idea that in the capitalist mode of production the behavior of actors in the market economy (means of production, distribution and exchange, the relations of production) plays the major role in configuring society.


Idealolgy

Idealolgy

  • Karl Marx propose that a society’s dominant ideology was a part of its economic base/ superstructure. The base refers to the material, economic, and social relations. In the bases of society there are three levels. The first level is the society’s conditions of production which means the natural conditions or resources that are available to society The next level is the society’s means of production which means the various kinds of equipment, tools, and machinery to be found there. The last level is the mode of production which means political and ideological conditions to be found there. The superstructure is formed on top of the base, and comprises that society’s ideology, as well as its legal system, political system, and religion. For Marx, the base determines the superstructure. Because the ruling class controls the society’s means of production, the superstructure of society, including its ideology, will be determined according to what is in the ruling class’s best interests. The ideologies of the dominant class of a society are proposed to al members of that society in order to make the ruling class’ interests appear to be the interests of all. Marx thought Ideology as an instrument of social reproduction has been an important touchstone for the sociology of knowledge. He believed that society’s superstructure is a reflection of the bases s of that society. Ideology itself represents the "production of ideas, of conceptions, of consciousness," all that "men say, imagine, conceive," and include such things as "politics, laws, morality, religion, metaphysics, etc.”


Morality

Morality

  • Marx believed that human morality was determined by the social structure of the State. Since the social structure was based upon the control of material goods, economics determine morality. In other words, morality is determined by the means of production and distribution. Marx's views on morality generate if not a paradox, then certainly a puzzle. On the one hand there seems little doubt that he writes about capitalism from the standpoint of high moral outrage. On the other, on certain readings of Marx morality is merely a form of ideology, with no independent critical force. This has led to a variety of views on the place of the notions of morality and, more particularly, justice in Marx's thought. Reading on this topic should begin with the seminal paper of Allen Wood, ‘The Marxian Critique of Justice'. Related questions concern the nature of communism, for which Marx's most developed writing occurs in his Critique of the Gotha Programme.


The end

The End


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