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Chapter 2 Strategic Planning and the Marketing Process Chapter Objectives Distinguish between strategic planning and tactical planning. Explain how marketing plans differ at various levels in an organization. Identify the steps in the marketing planning process.

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Chapter 2

Strategic Planning and the Marketing Process


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Chapter Objectives

  • Distinguish between strategic planning and tactical planning.

  • Explain how marketing plans differ at various levels in an organization.

  • Identify the steps in the marketing planning process.

  • Describe successful planning tools and techniques, including Porter’s Five Forces model, first and second mover strategies, SWOT analysis, and the strategic window.

  • Identify the basic elements of a marketing strategy.

  • Describe the environmental characteristics that influence strategy decisions.

  • Describe the methods for marketing planning, including business portfolio analysis and the BCG matrix.



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To asses the company’s position [strengths and weaknesses], and the opportunities and threats it faces.

To set goals, establish priorities, and develop strategies.

To plan the deployment of resources needed to attain the goals selected.

To give firm direction.

To make sure the goals of all parties are aligned.

To ensure that different functional areas have coordinated efforts.

To outline potential alternative actions the firm can take.

To project costs.

To assess performance.

Why do Planning?


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Marketing Planning: The Basics for Strategy and Tactics weaknesses], and the opportunities and threats it faces.

  • Planning: Process of anticipating future events and conditions and of determining the best way to achieve organizational goals

  • Marketing planning: Implementing planning activities devoted to achieving marketing objectives


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  • Strategic Planning versus Tactical Planning weaknesses], and the opportunities and threats it faces.

    • Strategic planning: Process of determining an organization’s primary objectives and adopting courses action that will achieve those objectives

    • Tactical planning: Process that guides the implementation of activities specified in the strategic plan.


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  • Strategic Planning versus Tactical Planning weaknesses], and the opportunities and threats it faces.

    • Top management

      • Greater proportions of their time engaged in planning

      • Usually focus their planning activities on long-range strategic issues

    • Middle level managers

      • Focus on operational planning; creating and implementing tactical plans

    • Supervisors

      • Developing the specific programs to meet goals in their areas of responsibility


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  • Table 2.1: weaknesses], and the opportunities and threats it faces.Planning at Different Managerial Levels


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Steps in the Marketing Planning Process weaknesses], and the opportunities and threats it faces.


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  • Defining the Mission of the Organization weaknesses], and the opportunities and threats it faces.

    • Mission: the essential purpose that differentiates one company from others

    • The mission statement specifies the organization’s overall goals and operational scope and provides general guidelines for future management actions

    • “An effective mission statement should be brief enough to fit on a T-Shirt.” – Peter Drucker.


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  • Determine Organizational Objectives weaknesses], and the opportunities and threats it faces.

    • An organization lays out its basic objectives, or goals, in its mission statement

    • These objectives in turn guide development of supporting marketing objectives and plans

    • Well-developed objectives should state specific, quantitative intentions along with deadlines for achieving them


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  • Formulating, Implementing, and Monitoring a Marketing Strategy

    • Marketing strategy: a firm’s overall program for selecting and satisfying a target market

    • A marketing strategy is aimed at satisfying consumers in the selected target market through a careful balance of the elements of the marketing mix – each of which represents a subset of the overall marketing strategy


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Successful Strategies: Tools and Techniques Strategy

  • All planning strategies have the goal of creating a sustainable competitive advantage for a firm.

  • An advantage where other companies cannot provide the same offering or value.



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  • First Mover and Second Mover Strategies Strategy

    • First mover strategy: Theory advocating that the company that is first to offer a product in a marketplace will be the long-term market winner.

    • Second mover strategy: Theory that advocates observing closely the innovations of first movers and then introducing new products that improve on the original offering to gain advantage in the marketplace.


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  • SWOT Strategy is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats

  • A SWOT analysis is a method of studying organizational resources and capabilities to assess the firm’s strengths and weaknesses and scanning its environment to identify opportunities and threats

  • Strengths reflect Core Competencies – what the company does well


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  • The Strategic Window Strategy

    • A limited period with an optimal fit between the key requirements of a market and the particular competencies of a firm.


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Elements of a Marketing Strategy Strategy

  • Blending the four strategy elements of marketing decision-making to satisfy chosen target markets

    • Product

    • Price

    • Distribution

    • Promotion


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  • Target Market Strategy

    • Group of people toward whom the firm decides to direct its marketing efforts


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  • Marketing Mix Variables Strategy

    • Product Strategy

      • What goods or services to offer

      • Customer service

      • Package design

      • Brand names

      • Trademarks

      • Warranties

      • Product Life Cycle

      • Positioning

      • New-product development


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  • Figure 2.7 Strategy

    • Quaker: Using the Product and the Promotional Strategies to Appeal to the Toastables market


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  • Marketing Mix Variables Strategy

    • Distribution StrategyPlanning that ensures that consumers find their products in the proper quantities at the right times and places.

    • Physical Distribution

      • Modes of transportation

      • Warehousing

      • Inventory control

      • Order processing

    • Marketing Channels

      • Retailers

      • Wholesalers


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  • Marketing Mix Variables Strategy

    • Promotional Strategy

      • Blending together the various elements of promotion to communicate most effectively with the target market

      • Informing, persuading, and influencing a consumer’s purchase decision.

    • Main Elements

      • Advertising

      • Promotion

    • IMC – Integrated Marketing Communications that ensure a unified and consistent message


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  • Figure 2.8 Strategy

    • Promoting the Healthful Benefits of Milk


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  • Marketing Mix Variables Strategy

    • Pricing Strategy

    • Deals with the methods of setting profitable and justifiable prices

    • Figure 2.9

      • Timex: Offering Customers Style and Durability- at a Lower price


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  • The Marketing Environment –Marketing Concerns: Strategy

    • Competitive

    • Political – Legal

    • Economic

    • Technological

    • Social – Cultural

  • Rule of three [P.52] – The three strongest, most efficient companies dominate 70% to 90% of the market. Examples: Fast Food, Cereal, Running Shoes, Airlines, Pharmaceuticules.


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Methods for Marketing Planning Strategy

  • Business Portfolio Analysis – evaluate divisions/products to determine strengths and weaknesses

  • Strategic Business Units (SBUs) are key business units within diversified firms

    • A division, product line, or single product may define an SBU

    • Firms redesign their SBUs as market conditions dictate


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  • 3M Strategy

    • Tape Products: A 3M Strategic Business Unit


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  • The Boston Consulting Group Matrix Strategy

    • Market Share/ Market Growth Matrix: a marketing planning tool that classifies a firm’s SBU’s or products according to industry growth rates and market shares relative to competing products

      • Stars

      • Cash Cows

      • Dogs

      • Question Marks


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  • Figure 2.10 Strategy

    • BCG Market Share/Market Growth Matrix


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Chapter 2 Appendix, StrategyAddendum Chapters 3, 22

The Marketing Plan


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Organizational Planning Strategy

  • Why are we in business? – Vision, Mission

  • How do we do business? – Values, Climate, Culture

  • Where are we now? – SWOTs, Competition, Constraints

  • Where do we want to be? - Strategies

  • How do we get there? – Tactics, Resources

  • How do we know we’ve arrived? – Budgets, Controls, Reports, Milestones

    Addendum Chapter 22, P.672

Gap Analysis


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The Marketing Plan Strategy

  • Contains detailed descriptions of the resources and actions needed to achieve stated marketing objectives.


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Why do a Marketing Plan? Strategy

  • To obtain external/internal financing

  • To provide direction for overall business and marketing strategies

  • To support the development of long-term and short-term organizational objectives

  • To guide employees in achieving these objectives

  • To serve as a standard against which the company’s/unit’s progress can be measured and evaluated



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Define the Organization’s Mission Strategy

  • Mission – the essential purposes that differentiates us from other companies.

  • Examples on PP.42,43


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Marketing Objectives Strategy

  • Objectives = Goals

  • Set by target market[s], product categories in terms of sales, market share, profit, advertising/promotion objectives, customer loyalty, etc.

  • Must be measurable

  • Must have a time set for completion

  • Examples: Chapter Two,P.43 and

    Addendum Chapter 3 P.76


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Perform a Situation Analysis Strategy

  • SWOT is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats

  • A SWOT analysis is a method of studying organizational resources and capabilities to assess the firm’s strengths and weaknesses and scanning its environment to identify opportunities and threats

  • Strengths reflect Core Competencies – what the company does well


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Develop a Marketing Strategy Strategy

  • Overall, a companywide program for selecting a particular target market and then satisfying consumers in that market through the marketing mix - product, distribution, promotion, and price.

  • Compare to competitors

  • Describe in terms of: market penetration, market development, product development, or diversification

  • Describe products as: Star, Cash Cow, Question Mark, or Dog

  • Describe in terms of: invest/grow, selectivity/earnings, or harvest/divest

  • Describe in terms of: price leadership, product differentiation, product leadership, or following in price/product.

    Refer to Addendum Chapter 3, P.76


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Market Structure Strategy

Competitive Analysis

Target Markets/Customers

Product/Services Offering

New Products/Marketing Research

Pricing Strategy & Tactics

Promotional Plans – Advertising & Promotion

Distribution Strategy

Physical Distribution

Marketing Channels

Marketing Staff

Marketing Budgets

Sales Plan

Supporting Documents

Tactical Plans


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Monitoring Results Strategy

  • Benchmarking

  • Customer Satisfaction Research

  • Marketing Cost Analysis

  • Sales Analysis

  • Marketing Audit

    Addendum Chapter 22, PP.679-689


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Next Class Strategy

  • January 31

  • Catch up on Chapters 5 and 8

  • Read Chapters 9 and 10


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