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Chapter 1. Introducing Public Speaking. Introduction to public speaking: Introduction. Effective public speaking can inspire, persuade, educate, and entertain. Because of this public speaking is a required course at many colleges.

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introducing Public Speaking

introduction to public speaking introduction
Introduction to public speaking: Introduction
  • Effective public speaking can inspire, persuade, educate, and entertain.
  • Because of this public speaking is a required course at many colleges.
  • Despite this, many employers report a lack of public speaking skills among job candidates.
  • You can learn to overcome speech anxiety and master public speaking just like you would learn to read, ride a bicycle, develop or another skill.
introduction to public speaking an overview
Introduction to public speaking:An overview
  • This introduction to public speaking reviews:
    • What is public speaking? What distinguishes it from other types of speech?
    • Why study public speaking?
    • Public speaking: a great tradition
    • Public speaking: a dynamic discipline
what is public speaking
What is public speaking?
  • Public speaking features communication between a speaker and his or her audience.
    • The speaker does most of the talking.
    • The audience gives feedback.
what is public speaking6
What is public speaking?
  • Public speaking is audience centered.
  • Good speakers:
    • Consider audience\'s interest and needs
    • Adapt to the occasion
what is public speaking7
What is public speaking?
  • Public speaking emphasizes the spoken word.
    • Visual aids assist the speaker; they are not the sole focus.
    • Good speakers use non-vocal elements of delivery to communicate.
what is public speaking8
What is public speaking?
  • Public speaking is usually a prepared presentation.
    • The best speakers spend significant time preparing.
    • Even impromptu speeches typically piece together a string of relevant ideas.
why study public speaking
Why study public speaking?
  • Studying public speaking can help you deliver effective presentations in the classroom, on the job, and in your community.
why study public speaking10
Why study public speaking?
  • Using Public Speaking as a Student
    • Many courses require speeches.
    • Well prepared and delivered speeches make a better impression on the professor and the class.
    • Extracurricular groups often have a public speaking component.
why study public speaking11
Why study public speaking?
  • Using Public Speaking in Your Career
    • Employers cite communication skills as the most important quality for a job candidate.
    • Workers report that communication is important in their jobs.
why study public speaking12
Why study public speaking?
  • Using Public Speaking in Your Community
    • Membership in community organizations may require speaking.
    • Community leadership certainly will require speaking.
public speaking a great tradition14
Public speaking: A great tradition
  • There is a great tradition of the study of speaking in antiquity.
  • In 5th century B.C.E. Greece, speaking at assembly gave rise to the first formal studies of rhetoric, the craft of public speaking.
    • Aristotle formalized the analysis of rhetoric.
    • His work influences the study of public speaking today.
public speaking a great tradition15
Public speaking: A great tradition
  • In 1st century B.C.E. Rome, vigorous debate took place in the Senate.
    • Cicero was a Senator and famous orator whose writings on rhetoric remain important.
    • Quintilian emphasized the notion of the ethical orator—a good person speaking well.
public speaking a great tradition16
Public speaking: A great tradition
  • Historically, public speaking was studied across the globe.
    • From the 5th through the 3rd Century B.C.E., traveling scholars debated philosophies throughout ancient China.
    • Traveling storytellers and Islamic scholars spoke throughout Africa in the 15th Century.
    • Many Native Americans prized oratory over bravery in battle.
public speaking a great tradition18
Public speaking: A great tradition
  • The tradition of public speaking flourished in American history.
    • The Great Awakening of the 1730s-1740s was an oratorical religious revival.
    • George Whitfield spoke in fields because churches weren\'t big enough.
    • Jonathan Edwards made worshippers shriek in fright with “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” in 1741.
    • Recently, the “Promise Keepers” filled football stadiums to hear speeches on family and religion.
public speaking a great tradition19
Public speaking: A great tradition
  • There were many key speaking opportunities in revolutionary America.
    • The Boston Tea Party is a well-known instance of colonists speaking out in protest of taxation.
    • There were numerous political debates around the framing of the Constitution.
public speaking a great tradition20
Public speaking: A great tradition
  • The antislavery movement was one of great oratory.
    • The Lincoln-Douglas debates before the Civil War drew massive crowds.
    • Frederick Douglass moved audiences with accounts of life under slavery.
    • Abolitionist Angelina Grimké won adherents with her tales of slave abuse in South Carolina
public speaking a great tradition21
Public speaking: A great tradition
  • The women\'s suffrage movement emerged at the same time.
    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and others led the movement.
    • They used oratory to persuade Americans that women deserved the vote.
public speaking a great tradition22
Public speaking: A great tradition
  • Public address flourished in the 20th century.
    • After World War I President Wilson traveled through the U.S. to promote his League of Nations idea.
    • In 1963, Martin Luther King brought 250,000 to the capitol with his March on Washington and his “I Have A Dream” speech.
public speaking a great tradition23
Public speaking: A great tradition
  • Today, it may seem as if speaking is less important.
    • We are more likely communicate now by cell phone or text message than to listen to a speech.
    • However, after the attacks of September 11, 2001, millions of people felt it crucial to hear the President speak about the tragedy.
public speaking a dynamic discipline
Public speaking: A dynamic discipline
  • From Linear to Transactional: Evolving Views of the Public Speaking Process
    • The linear model emphasized a source encoding a message through a channel impeded by noise to a decoding receiver.
public speaking a dynamic discipline26
Public speaking: A dynamic discipline
  • From Linear to Transactional: Evolving Views of the Public Speaking Process
    • Recent models stress the idea of transaction: both parties are in communication, sending and receiving messages and feedback, and creating shared meaning.
public speaking a dynamic discipline27
Public speaking: A dynamic discipline
  • Awareness of Audiences’ Cultural Diversity
  • There is increasing cultural diversity in the United States.
    • Culture is the traditions, values, and rules for living that people pass from generation to generation.
    • Increasingly, Americans come from other countries, bringing cultural diversity.
public speaking a dynamic discipline28
Public speaking: A dynamic discipline
  • Awareness of Audiences’ Cultural Diversity
  • Because of the diversity of cultures, it is unlikely people you interact with share the same worldviews and values.
    • We must adapt the way we use humor.
    • We must adjust our understandings of how audiences express feedback.
    • The recent immigration debates illustrate the complexity of this issue.
public speaking a dynamic discipline29
Public speaking: A dynamic discipline
  • Emphasis on Critical Thinking
    • You should feel confident that all the ideas you present to an audience are reasonable.
    • You should always evaluate the truth claims you make.
public speaking a dynamic discipline31
Public speaking: A dynamic discipline
  • The Increasing Importance of Ethics
  • Unethical communication seems to have increased.
    • In recent years, journalists covered politicians and CEOs lying to the American public.
    • 1/3 of adults do not consider the traditionally reliable figures of doctors and clergy as credible.
public speaking a dynamic discipline32
Public speaking: A dynamic discipline
  • It is thus even more important that we treat our audiences ethically.
  • The persuasive power of public speaking comes with responsibilities.
    • Always tell the truth.
    • Provide balanced, accurate information.
    • Avoid manipulative reasoning.
    • Supply proper support for your argument.
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