an introduction to corruption

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an introduction to corruption

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3. Why write this book?

5. Decentralization is interesting…really… Decentralization dilemmas around since humans organized themselves in large collectives. Dilemma (for example Merilee Grindle): Why give up power? We can mean very different things when we talk about decentralization – It depends on the context and the system of governance.

6. Colonialism

7. Democracy and Decentralisation Idea from France

8. Objectives and expectations of decentralisation economic values democratic values

9. Failed experiments Russia: Catherine the Great Anarchism: Bakunin

10. Decentralisation can be a cure against corruption….

11. Corruption – from moral decay to abuse of public office

12. Arthasastra

15. When you write about this, it is useful to refer to: Thucydides Niccolň Machiavelli Ramsay MacMullen (Rome) Anthony McFarlane (South America) Nancy Park (China) John King (England)

17. efficiency and economic development development for equality

18. Definitions

19. Definition presupposes a central administration of power – in modern terms and times, a state. that there are certain established and well-known rules or principles that define correct or incorrect behaviour. these rules clearly imply a separation of the public and private sphere.

21. Hypotheses The stick and the carrot

22. Vito Tanzi/Klitgaard

23. Hypotheses The stick and the carrot Proximity (Decentralization) Socio-economic standard Culture Social capital

25. Hypotheses The stick and the carrot Proximity (Decentralization) Socio-economic standard Culture Social capital

26. The standard assumption

27. Hypotheses The stick and the carrot Proximity (Decentralization) Socio-economic standard Culture Social capital

28. Case: Corruption and Decentralisation in India

29. The Study in India Madhya Pradesh and Kerala In-depth interviews Survey of 24 villages: one based on random sample (n=1200) of citizens and one strategic sample of local leaders/elites (n=130) Watch out for: inefficiency=corruption Careful with generalizations

30. Hypotheses

31. Case selection

32. Decentralization = Influence

33. Results: Citizens and corruption Majority against corrupt practices in both corrupt and non-corrupt areas. Conclusion: culture, as a general argument does not explain. Capacity to separate private and public important. Conclusion: Knowledge explains more than culture

34. also… People in general likes the Weberian ideal bureaucrat Education to some extent related to propensity to accept bribes

35. Village level Decentralization did not have the expected influence on corruption Human capital no effect on corruption Physical capital no effect on corruption Political mobilization related to some extent to corruption – some but relatively few protest in corrupt areas Social capital clearly connected to level of corruption – but in an unexpected way

36. The standard assumption

37. Social capital and corruption High levels of bridging social capital to some extent related to a low level of corruption High levels of bonding social capital clearly related to a low level of corruption

38. Another interpretation…

39. The utility of bonding social capital the civil rights movement in America the women's rights movement the workers' rights movement

40. Conclusions “Culture” used in broad sense can not explain corruption Bonding social capital can play an important role for development in a passive as well as in an active way Some kind of trust is a necessary but not sufficient condition for clean governance Not necessarily a zero-sum relationship between bonding and bridging social capital Nonetheless, do not expect too much from “change from below“

42. The Cures Salary - above the break point Punishment - above the break point Decentralisation - sometimes Human capital Trust Side-stepping old structures (when nothing else works)

43. Spin-off

45. Tolerance Trust and Tolerance are not the same

46. …other thoughts…

47. NPM/Mode II-ideology negative effects on research Political influence Quest for networks and interdisciplinary organization creates a “Top-Down”-oriented structure Research results has to be specified at the outset

48. ?

49. Decentralization: Definitions Manor, Crook, Rondinelli fiscal decentralisation deconcentration or administrative decentralisation devolution or democratic decentralisation

50. Decentralization: Definitions Widmalm: It all depends on what questions you ask!

52. Decentralization: Definitions Geographical location of institutions. Deconcentration a necessary but not sufficient condition for decentralisation. Legal status and areas of responsibility of institutions Powers – from responsibility and autonomy to privatisation

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