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3. Why write this book?
5. Decentralization is interesting…really… Decentralization dilemmas around since humans organized themselves in large collectives.
Dilemma (for example Merilee Grindle): Why give up power?
We can mean very different things when we talk about decentralization – It depends on the context and the system of governance.
7. Democracy and Decentralisation Idea from France
8. Objectives and expectations of decentralisation economic values
9. Failed experiments Russia: Catherine the Great
10. Decentralisation can be a cure against corruption….
11. Corruption – from moral decay to abuse of public office
15. When you write about this, it is useful to refer to: Thucydides
Ramsay MacMullen (Rome)
Anthony McFarlane (South America)
Nancy Park (China)
John King (England)
17. efficiency and economic development development for equality
19. Definition presupposes a central administration of power – in modern terms and times, a state.
that there are certain established and well-known rules or principles that define correct or incorrect behaviour.
these rules clearly imply a separation of the public and private sphere.
21. Hypotheses The stick and the carrot
22. Vito Tanzi/Klitgaard
23. Hypotheses The stick and the carrot
25. Hypotheses The stick and the carrot
26. The standard assumption
27. Hypotheses The stick and the carrot
28. Case: Corruption and Decentralisation in India
29. The Study in India Madhya Pradesh and Kerala
Survey of 24 villages: one based on random sample (n=1200) of citizens and one strategic sample of local leaders/elites (n=130)
Watch out for: inefficiency=corruption
Careful with generalizations
31. Case selection
32. Decentralization = Influence
33. Results: Citizens and corruption Majority against corrupt practices in both corrupt and non-corrupt areas.
Conclusion: culture, as a general argument does not explain.
Capacity to separate private and public important.
Conclusion: Knowledge explains more than culture
34. also… People in general likes the Weberian ideal bureaucrat
Education to some extent related to propensity to accept bribes
35. Village level Decentralization did not have the expected influence on corruption
Human capital no effect on corruption
Physical capital no effect on corruption
Political mobilization related to some extent to corruption – some but relatively few protest in corrupt areas
Social capital clearly connected to level of corruption – but in an unexpected way
36. The standard assumption
37. Social capital and corruption High levels of bridging social capital to some extent related to a low level of corruption
High levels of bonding social capital clearly related to a low level of corruption
38. Another interpretation…
39. The utility of bonding social capital the civil rights movement in America
the women's rights movement
the workers' rights movement
40. Conclusions “Culture” used in broad sense can not explain corruption
Bonding social capital can play an important role for development in a passive as well as in an active way
Some kind of trust is a necessary but not sufficient condition for clean governance
Not necessarily a zero-sum relationship between bonding and bridging social capital
Nonetheless, do not expect too much from “change from below“
42. The Cures Salary - above the break point
Punishment - above the break point
Decentralisation - sometimes
Side-stepping old structures (when nothing else works)
45. Tolerance Trust and Tolerance are not the same
46. …other thoughts…
47. NPM/Mode II-ideology negative effects on research Political influence
Quest for networks and interdisciplinary organization creates a “Top-Down”-oriented structure
Research results has to be specified at the outset
49. Decentralization: Definitions Manor, Crook, Rondinelli
deconcentration or administrative decentralisation
devolution or democratic decentralisation
50. Decentralization: Definitions Widmalm: It all depends on what questions you ask!
52. Decentralization: Definitions Geographical location of institutions. Deconcentration a necessary but not sufficient condition for decentralisation.
Legal status and areas of responsibility of institutions
Powers – from responsibility and autonomy to privatisation