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What is the biggest organism ever?. Apatosaurus ?. Blue whale?. Coast redwood?. None of the above – it’s a fungus. A single clone of the “honey mushroom” Armillaria can cover more than 2,200 acres (1,600 football fields) . Fungi. Chapter 31. Fungal Origins. Choanoflagellates.

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What is the biggest organism ever l.jpg
What is the biggest organism ever?

Apatosaurus?

Blue whale?

Coast redwood?


None of the above it s a fungus l.jpg
None of the above – it’s a fungus

A single clone of the “honey mushroom” Armillaria can cover more than 2,200 acres (1,600 football fields)


Fungi l.jpg

Fungi

Chapter 31


Fungal origins l.jpg
Fungal Origins

Choanoflagellates

Diplomonadida

Fungi

Parabasala

Euglenozoa

Chlorophyta

Rhodophyta

Radiolaria

Cercozoa

Animalia

Plantae

Alveolata

Stramenopila

Amoebozoa

Ancestral eukaryote

Figure 28.4


Fungal form and function l.jpg

Fungal Form and Function

Hyphae- thread-like

filaments, one cell thick

Reproductive

structure or fruiting body

Anatomy

Hyphae and mycelium

See Fig. 31.2

Mycelium – interwoven mass of hyphae


Fungal form and function6 l.jpg

Fungal Form and Function

Anatomy

Hyphae and mycelium

Hyphae

Mycelium


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Fungal Form and Function

Aseptate hypha,

a.k.a. coenocytic

Septate hypha

Anatomy

See Fig. 31.3


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Fungal Form and Function

Anatomy

Cell walls contain chitin


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Fungal Form and Function

Immobile adults


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Fungal Form and Function

Unlike plants and animals,

no distinct embryo is formed

during early development


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Fungal Form and Function

Nutrition

Chemoheterotrophic

Fungi exude exoenzymes that break down organic molecules that the fungi can absorb and use as a supply of both energy and carbon


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Fungal Form and Function

Saprobic – if they digest dead organisms and waste products

Nutrition

Chemoheterotrophic

Parasitic – if they digest live organisms

Mutualistically symbiotic – form associations with other organisms for mutual benefit


Fungal life cycles l.jpg

Fungal Life Cycles

Haploid – most fungal hyphae and all spores have haploid nuclei

Diploid – diploid nuclei are found transiently during the sexual phase (if present)

Three ploidy types

Heterokaryon – unfused nuclei from different parents occupying the same unit of hypha


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Fungal Life Cycles

Reproduction

Asexual – default mode under stable

conditions; spores are produced


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Fungal Life Cycles

Haploid (1n) spores

are produced by

mitosis

Key

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

Spores are genetically

identical to original

mycelium

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

Spores disperse and

germinate to

produce new

myceliun

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5


Fungal form and function16 l.jpg

Fungal Form and Function

Reproduction

Asexual – default mode under stable

conditions; spores are produced

Sexual – usually only under stressful

conditions; spores are produced;

many mating types possible

(essentially like having many different

sexes or genders)


Sexual reproduction in fungi l.jpg

+

hyphae (n)

fused hyphae (n + n)

zygote (2n)

+

+

sexual spores (n)

zygotes (2n)

Sexual reproduction in fungi

fusion of compatible hyphae(plasmogamy)

dispersal of spores

fusion of nuclei(karyogamy)

meiosis of “zygote-like” structures


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Sexual reproduction in fungi

Haploid spores may disperse long distances away from the fruiting body


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Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of compatible hyphae (plasmogamy)

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5


Slide20 l.jpg

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of compatible hyphae (plasmogamy)

…initiates a heterokaryotic phase

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5


Slide21 l.jpg

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of nuclei (karyogamy)

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5


Slide22 l.jpg

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of nuclei (karyogamy)

…initiates a zygotic phase

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5


Slide23 l.jpg

Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Fusion of nuclei (karyogamy)

…initiates a zygotic phase

…which is perhaps best described as “zygote like”

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5


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Fungal Life Cycles

Key

Meiosis in “zygote-like” cells produces spores or cells that will produce spores

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5


Slide25 l.jpg

Fungal Life Cycles

Both asexual & sexual reproduction produce haploid spores

Key

Heterokaryotic

stage

Haploid (n)

Heterokaryotic

PLASMOGAMY

(fusion of cytoplasm)

Diploid (2n)

KARYOGAMY

(fusion of nuclei)

Spore-producing

structures

Zygote

SEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Spores

ASEXUAL

REPRODUCTION

Mycelium

MEIOSIS

GERMINATION

GERMINATION

Spore-producing

structures

Spores

See Fig. 31.5


Slide26 l.jpg

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Zygote fungi

Club fungi

Sac fungi

Chytrids

Zygomycota

Ascomycota

Basidiomycota

Glomeromycota

Chytridiomycota

Fugal Diversity

5 phyla

Over 100,000 species described

Over 1000 additional species described each year

Loss of flagella*

See Fig. 31.9

*Flagella may have been lost multiple

times in the fist two lineages


Classification of fungi l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Chytrids

Ancient group – diverged earliest from the other fungi


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Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Chytrids

Ancient group – diverged earliest from the other fungi

Aquatic –

the only fungi with flagellated spores (zoospores)


Slide29 l.jpg

Sexual reproduction in a chytrid:

flagellated spores

spores


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Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Chytrids

Ancient group – diverged earliest from the other fungi

Aquatic –

the only fungi with flagellated spores

(zoospores)

Saprobic – majority

Parasitic – some


Classification of fungi31 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi

Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores


Slide32 l.jpg

Key

Black Bread Mold

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Diploid (2n)

Plasmogamy

Mating type (+)

Mating type (-)

Sexual reproduction

Zygosporangium

Karyogamy

Asexual

reproduction

Meiosis

See Fig. 31.12


Classification of fungi33 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi

Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores

Asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores


Slide34 l.jpg

Key

Black Bread Mold

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Diploid (2n)

Plasmogamy

Mating type (+)

Mating type (-)

Sexual Reproduction

Zygosporangium

Karyogamy

Asexual

Reproduction

Meiosis

See Fig. 31.12


Classification of fungi35 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi

Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores

Asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores

Mostly saprobic decayers of organic matter, e.g., soft fruit rot fungi and black bread mold


Classification of fungi36 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Zygomycetes = Zygote fungi

Sexual reproduction via zygosporangia (resistant heterokaryons) that produce genetically variable spores

Asexual reproduction via sporangia that produce spores

Mostly saprobic decayers of organic matter,

e.g., soft fruit rot fungi and black bread mold

Some parasites, e.g., single-celled microsporidia


Classification of fungi37 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Glomeromycetes = Arbuscular mycorrhizae

Associated with ~90% of plant species


Classification of fungi38 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

Sexual reproduction via spores produced in asci (sac-like cases)


Slide39 l.jpg

Key

Neurospora

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Conidia of mating type (-)

Diploid (2n)

Asexual

Reproduction

Plasmogamy

Hyphae of mating type (+)

Karyogamy

Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis

SeeFig. 31.17

Ascocarp, ascus,and ascospores


Classification of fungi40 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi

Sexual reproduction via spores produced in asci (sac-like cases)

Asexual reproduction via naked spores (conidia)


Slide41 l.jpg

Key

Neurospora: an ascomycete

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Conidia of mating type (-)

Diploid (2n)

Asexual

Reproduction

Plasmogamy

Hyphae of mating type (+)

Karyogamy

Sexual Reproduction

Meiosis

SeeFig. 31.17

Ascocarp, ascus,and ascospores


Classification of fungi42 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Many saprobic species,e.g., Scarlet cups

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi


Classification of fungi43 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Many parasites, especially of plants, but also of animals, e.g., Candida yeasts

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi


Classification of fungi44 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Many symbionts with plants, e.g., truffles

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi


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Classification of Fungi

Morels – Delicacy or deadly

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi


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Classification of Fungi

Sources of many interesting chemicals

E.g., Penicillium – the source of penicillin

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi


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Classification of Fungi

Sources of many interesting chemicals

E.g., the source of LSD

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi


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Classification of Fungi

The yeasts used to brew beer…

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi


Classification of fungi49 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

…and bake breads and pizza crusts…

Phylum: Ascomycetes = Sac fungi


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Classification of Fungi

…but the mushrooms that top your pizza come from a different phylum…


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Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Include:

common mushroom, puffballs,

stink horns, shelf fungi,

plant-parasitic smuts & rusts


Classification of fungi53 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Include:

common mushroom, puffballs,

stink horns, shelf fungi,

plant-parasitic smuts & rusts

Sexual reproduction via club-shaped reproductive structures, basidia, containing basidiospores


Slide54 l.jpg

A mushroom-forming basidiomycete

Plasmogamy

SeeFig. 31.20

Basidiocarp

Mating type (-)

Mating type (+)

Sexual Reproduction

Basidia with basidiospores

Karyogamy

Meiosis

Key

Haploid (1n)

Heterokaryotic (1n + 1n)

Diploid (2n)


Classification of fungi55 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Include:

common mushroom, puffballs,

stink horns, shelf fungi,

plant-parasitic smuts & rusts

Sexual reproduction via club-shaped reproductive structures, basidia, containing basidiospores

Asexual reproduction is uncommon


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Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Fruiting bodies of the “inky cap” mushroom


Slide57 l.jpg

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Basidia are generally found on the surface of gills

gills

basidiospores


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Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Basidia are generally found on the surface of gills

Amanita spore pattern


Slide59 l.jpg

Phylum: Basidiomycetes = Club fungi

Shelf fungi

Giant puffball



Classification of fungi61 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Deuteromycetes - Imperfect Fungi

Eclectic group of unclassified species


Classification of fungi62 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Deuteromycetes - Imperfect Fungi

Eclectic group of unclassified species

Sexual structures unknown (i.e., no

flagellated spores, zygosporangia,

asci, or basidia), so these haven’t been classified


Classification of fungi63 l.jpg

Classification of Fungi

Deuteromycetes - Imperfect Fungi

Eclectic group of currently unclassified species

Sexual structures unknown (i.e., no

flagellated spores, zygosporangia,

asci, or basidia), so these haven’t been classified

Includes many molds and mildews (which demonstrates that certain commonly recognized “groups” are not good phylogenetic groups)


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Ecosystems on Earth would collapse without the molds and mildews (plus many bacteria) that break down organic matter into inorganic nutrients

Molds

Many rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungi (mostly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes)


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Occur in the Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes & Zygomycetes

Yeasts

Many unicellular fungi that inhabit liquid or moist surfaces and reproduce asexually

Free-living, parasitic, and mutualistic symbiotic forms exist


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Mycorrhizae

Symbiotic associations with plants (representatives known from all fungal phyla, not just Glomeromycetes)


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Lichens

Obligate symbiotic associations with algae or cyanobacteria


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Chestnut blight

Ringworm

Parasites


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Aflatoxin

Toxin producers


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Staphylococcus

Penicillium

Zone of inhibited growth

Functional Biology of Fungi

The first antibiotic used by humans

Biotic control agents


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Used against termites, rice weevils, etc.

Biotic control agents


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Interesting example…

of agriculture in insects

Leaf-cutter ants cut and carry leaf fragments to their nests where the fragments are used to farm fungi


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Interesting example… of fungal cowboys

Some soil fungisnare nematodeworms in hyphalnooses and thendigest them

unlucky nematode

fungal hypha


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Functional Biology of Fungi

Interesting example… of fungi & conservation

The golden toad became extinct within the past 20 years, owing to anthropogenicenvironmental deterioration,which also facilitated pathogenic chytrid fungi


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