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African Horse Sickness. Perdesiekte, Pestis Equorum, La Peste Equina, Peste Equina Africana. Overview. Organism Economic Impact Epidemiology Transmission Clinical Signs Diagnosis and Treatment Prevention and Control Actions to Take. The Organism. African Horse Sickness Virus.

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African horse sickness l.jpg

African Horse Sickness

Perdesiekte, Pestis Equorum, La Peste Equina, Peste Equina Africana


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Organism

  • Economic Impact

  • Epidemiology

  • Transmission

  • Clinical Signs

  • Diagnosis and Treatment

  • Prevention and Control

  • Actions to Take

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008



African horse sickness virus l.jpg
African Horse Sickness Virus

  • Non-enveloped RNA

  • Family Reoviridae

    • Genus Orbivirus

  • Arthropod-borne

  • Inactivated by

    • Heat (140oF)

    • pH less than 6

    • pH 12 or greater

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008



History l.jpg
History

  • 1780-1918: 7 epizootics in South Africa

  • Endemic in sub-Saharan Africa

  • 1959-61: Middle East

    • 1st outbreak outside endemic Africa

  • 1965-66: Morocco, Algeria, Spain

  • 1987-91: Spain, Portugal

    • Imported zebra reservoirs

    • New Culicoides species

  • 1989-91: Algeria, Morocco

SPAIN

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Economic Impact

  • 1989: Spain and Portugal

    • 137 outbreaks - 104 farms

    • 206 equines died or destroyed

    • 170,000 equines vaccinated

    • Cost $1.9 million

  • U.S. Horse Industry (1998)

    • Inventory:5.25 million horses

    • Sales: $1.75 billion

    • Sold: 558,000

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008



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Geographic Distribution

  • Endemic in sub-Saharan Africa

  • Outbreaks

    • southern and northern Africa

    • Near and Middle East

    • Spain and Portugal

  • Peak: Late summer - early autumn

  • Prevalence influenced by climate

Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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Mortality

  • Horses: Mortality 50-95%

    • Pulmonary form – up to 95%

    • Cardiac form – 50% or higher

    • Mixed form – 70-80%

    • Horsesickness fever - typically recover

  • Other Equidae

    • Mules: 50%

    • European or Asian donkeys: 5-10%

    • None in African donkeys and zebras

  • Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008



    Animal transmission l.jpg
    Animal Transmission

    • Not contagious

    • Vector-borne

      • Biting midges: Culicoides imicola, C. bolitinos; C. variipennis

      • Other potential vectors

        • Mosquitoes, biting flies

    • Viremia in Equidae

      • Horses: 12-40 days

      • Zebras, African donkeys: up to 6 weeks

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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    Culicoides spp.

    • Biting midges

      • “punkies”, “no-see-ums”

    • Extremely small ~1/8”

    • Distinct wing pattern

    • Greatest biting activityaround dawn and dusk

    • Habitat: margins of water sources

      • Streams, lakes, mudholes, treeholes

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Animals and african horse sickness l.jpg

    Animals and African Horse Sickness


    Clinical signs l.jpg
    Clinical Signs

    • Incubation period: 2-21 days

      • Varies with form of the disease

    • Four forms of the disease

      • Pulmonary (peracute)

      • Cardiac (subacute edematous)

      • Mixed (acute)

      • Horsesickness fever

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Pulmonary peracute form l.jpg
    Pulmonary (Peracute) Form

    • Acute fever

    • Sudden, severerespiratory distress

    • Dyspnea and tachypnea

    • Profuse sweating

    • Spasmodic coughing

    • Frothy serofibrinous nasal exudate

    • Rapid death

    Foam from the nares due to pulmonary edema.

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Cardiac subacute form l.jpg
    Cardiac (Subacute) Form

    • Edema

      • Supraorbital fossae, eyelids, intermandibular space

      • Neck, thorax, brisket, and shoulders

    • Terminal stages

      • Petechiae: ventral tongue, conjunctiva

    • Death within 1 week

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Mixed acute form l.jpg
    Mixed (Acute) Form

    • Pulmonary and cardiac forms

    • Cardiac signs usually subclinical

      • Followed by severe respiratory distress

    • Mild respiratory signs

      • Followed by edema and death

    • Diagnosed by necropsy

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Horsesickness fever l.jpg
    Horsesickness Fever

    • Mild clinical signs

    • Characteristic fever (3-8 days)

      • Morning remission (undetectable)

      • Afternoon exacerbation

    • Other signs

      • Mild anorexia or depression

      • Congested mucous membranes

      • Increased heart rate

    • Rarely fatal

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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    Post Mortem Lesions

    • Pulmonary form

      • Hydrothorax

      • Severe pulmonary edema

    • Cardiac form

      • Yellow gelatinous infiltrate

        • Fascia of head, neck, shoulders

      • Hydropericardium

    • Mixed form

      • Mixture of above findings

    Excessive fluid in the thoracic cavity and pulmonary edema; note the distended interlobular septa.

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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    Differential Diagnosis

    • Equine encephalosis

    • Equine viral arteritis

    • Equine infectious anemia

    • Hendra virus infection

    • Purpura hemorrhagica

    • Equine piroplasmosis

    • Anthrax

    • Toxins

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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    Sampling

    Before collecting or sending any samples, the proper authorities should be contacted.

    Samples should only be sent under secure conditions and to authorized laboratories to prevent the spread of the disease.

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Diagnosis and treatment l.jpg
    Diagnosis and Treatment

    • Clinical signs

      • Supraorbital swelling is characteristic

      • History

    • Laboratory diagnosis

      • Virus isolation & identification

      • Serology (tentative)

      • Necropsy: spleen, lung, lymph node

    • No efficient treatment

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Ahs and other species l.jpg
    AHS and Other Species

    • Dogs

      • Ingestion of infected horse meat

      • Not usually by insect bites

      • No role in spread or maintenance

      • Dogs usually have the pulmonary form

    • Camels, zebras

      • Inapparent infection

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008



    Ahs in humans l.jpg
    AHS in Humans

    • No natural infection in humans

    • Neurotropic vaccine strains

      • Transnasal infection

        • Encephalitis

        • Retinitis

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008



    Recommended actions l.jpg
    Recommended Actions

    • Notification of Authorities

      • Federal:

        Area Veterinarian in Charge (AVIC) www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/area_offices

      • State Veterinarian www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/sregs/official.html

    • Quarantine

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Disinfection l.jpg
    Disinfection

    • Disinfectants

      • Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)

      • 2% acetic or citric acid

    • Killed

      • pH less than 6

      • pH 12 or greater

    • Rapidly destroyed in carcasses that have undergone rigor mortis

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Prevention l.jpg
    Prevention

    • Quarantine

      • Equidae from endemic areas

        • Asia, Africa, and Mediterranean

      • Minimum 60 days at point of entry

    • Vaccination

      • In infected areas

      • Surrounding protection zone

      • Not available in the U.S.

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Control l.jpg
    Control

    • Vector control and protection

      • Insect repellants

      • Stable in insect-proof housing from dusk to dawn

    • Monitor temperature of all equids

    • Euthanize or isolate febrile equids

      • In an insect-free stableuntil cause is determined

    • Vaccination

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Vaccination l.jpg
    Vaccination

    • Attenuated live vaccine available for horses, mules, and donkeys

    • Recovering animals

      • Lifelong immunity to the serotype infected with

    • OIE International Animal Health Code

      • All AHS vaccinated Equidae must be permanently marked at time of vaccination

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008



    Additional resources34 l.jpg
    Additional Resources

    • World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)

      • www.oie.int

    • CFSPH Fact Sheet and Fast Fact

      • www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/default.htm

    • USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases – “The Gray Book”

      • www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book02/fad/ahs.php

    • The Merck Veterinary Manual

      • www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


    Acknowledgments l.jpg
    Acknowledgments

    Development of this presentationwas funded by grants from

    the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management Division, and the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardshipto the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State University.

    Authors: Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MS, MPH, DACVPM; Anna Rovid Spickler, DVM, PhD

    Reviewers: James A. Roth, DVM, PhD; Bindy Comito, BA; Katie Spaulding, BS; Jane Galyon, MS

    Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2008


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