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Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong. Postwar History. Republic of China 1912 -. First republic in Asia First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925). Chiang Kai-shek. First constitutional president 1948 - 1975 Defeated by CCP in 1949 Retreated to Taiwan

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Taiwan ROC & Hong Kong

Postwar History


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Republic of China 1912 -

  • First republic in Asia

  • First president: Sun Yat-sen (1866 - 1925)


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Chiang Kai-shek

  • First constitutional president

    • 1948 - 1975

  • Defeated by CCP in 1949

  • Retreated to Taiwan

  • Authoritarian rule for a quarter century


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ROC Government

  • President (4-year term after 1996)

  • The Five ``Yuan”:

    • Executive Yuan

    • Legislative Yuan

    • Judicial Yuan

    • Examination Yuan

    • Control Yuan

  • Provinces


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Taiwan before 1949

  • Immigration from mainland China for centuries (Fujian and Hakka)

  • 1885, promoted from prefecture to province

  • 1895, ceded to Japan

  • 1945, returned to Republic of China

  • ``Taiwanese” versus ``mainlanders”


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Taiwan & Islands

  • Area: 13,900 square miles

  • Population: 22.7 million

  • Fujian 70%

  • Hakka 15%

  • “mainlanders”

    • 13%


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Comparison

  • area

    • mainland: 9,600,000 km2

    • Taiwan: 36,000 km2

  • population

    • mainland: 1.3 billion

    • Taiwan: 22.7 million


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Comparison

  • nominal GDP of 2002

    • mainland: 1,237 billion US$

    • Taiwan: 286 billion US$

  • trade volume of 2002

    • mainland: 621 billion US$

    • Taiwan: 243 billion US$


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Time-lagged development

  • Land reform in Taiwan (1950s) and in mainland (1970s)

  • economic takeoff in Taiwan (1950s- ) and in mainland (1980s- )

  • export promotion policies

    • tariff rebates (1950s vs. 1980s)

    • special economic zones (1960s vs. 1980s)


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Time-lagged development

  • Promotion of small and medium size enterprises in Taiwan (1960s- ) and in mainland (1980s- )

  • currency exchange rate

    • 1960s vs. 1990s

  • Popular elections at the basic level


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Chiang’s One-China Policy

  • ``Mainland was temporarily usurped by communist bandits”

  • ``Gloriously retake the mainland”

  • Refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognized PRC

  • ROC was a permanent member of UN Security Council until 1971


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Lee Teng-hui (1923 - )

  • Succeeded Chiang Kai-shek’s son as president of ROC and chairman of GMD in 1988

  • Became the first popularly elected president of ROC in 1996

  • Helped Democratic Progressive Party gain power in 2000


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Chen Shui-bian (1950 - )

  • Leader of the Democratic Progressive Party

  • Inauguration in 2000



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Land & People

  • 422 square miles

    • Hong Kong Island

    • Kowloon Peninsular

    • New Territories

    • Outlying islands

  • 7 million residents

    • 95% Chinese


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Brief History

  • HK Island was occupied by UK in 1841

  • New Territories on 99-year lease in 1898

  • Occupied by Japan during World War II

  • Shanghai enterprises fled CCP forces in late 1940s (industrialization of HK)

  • One of the four ``Asian Little Tigers”



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Handover to PRC

  • Deng Xiaoping: “1 country, 2 systems”

  • PRC Constitution of 1982: S.A.R.

  • PRC & UK Joint Declaration in 1984

  • 7th National People’s Congress adopted Basic Law of HKSAR in Beijing in 1990

  • Became Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of PRC in July 1, 1997


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``1 Country, 2 Systems”

  • Capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years (B.L. A5)

  • HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative, and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication (B.L. A2)

  • PRC Central Government responsible for defense and foreign affairs (B.L. A13-14)


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