Origin and domestication of swine
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Origin and Domestication of Swine. Not herded easily – regional development many different types as a result China - 4900 BC, Great Britain – 800 BC Most intelligent – feral in a few generations – e.g. Arkansas Razorbacks some nondomesticated types…. US wild pigs? Javelinas/peccaries

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Origin and Domestication of Swine

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Origin and Domestication of Swine

  • Not herded easily – regional development

    • many different types as a result

    • China - 4900 BC, Great Britain – 800 BC

  • Most intelligent – feral in a few generations – e.g. Arkansas Razorbacks

    • some nondomesticated types…. US wild pigs?

      • Javelinas/peccaries

      • warthog, riverpig, forest hog - Africa


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Origin and Domestication of Swine

  • Today’s swine originated from:

    • European Wild Boar – still exist in Europe

      • Black and gray or brown

    • East Indian Pig (several types)

    • These two crossed to form modern swine breeds


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Swine in the USA

  • Columbus, 8 head to the USA

    • Hunted down with dogs 13 year later – killing cattle

  • DeSoto

    • 13 head, 3 yr later, 700 pigs

    • escapees were origin of razorbacks

  • Many US breeds of swine developed in the USA

    • native females crossed with European, Chinese and Russian boars


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Swine Breeds

  • Maternal breeds – typically white; excel in litter size, fertility, milk production.

  • Paternal (sire) breeds – typically colored; excel in leanness, muscling, growth rate.

  • Corporate swine breeding companies

    • ie. DeKalb, Pig Improvement Company (PIC).

    • sell synthetic “lines” of breeding stock

    • hybrids of 2 or more breeds to form “lines”

    • sire/terminal or maternal lines


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Yorkshire

  • maternal breed – 1st in USA

  • England (Large White)

  • white, erect ears

  • excels in:

    • litter size

    • milk production

    • fertility


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Chester White

  • maternal breed – 7th in USA

  • Pennsylvania

  • white, small drooping ears

  • excels in:

    • litter size

    • milk production

    • fertility


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Landrace

  • maternal breed 4th in USA

  • Denmark

  • white, large drooping ears excels in:

    • litter size

    • milk production

    • fertility


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Duroc

  • paternal breed – 2nd in USA

  • New York/New Jersey

  • solid red color

  • excels in:

    • leanness

    • growth

    • muscling


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Hampshire

  • paternal sire – 3rd in USA

  • Boone County, KY

  • black, white belt

  • excels in:

    • leanness

    • growth

    • muscling


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Spots (Spotted)

  • paternal sire – 5th in USA

  • Putnam County, IN

  • black and white spots

  • drooping ears

  • excels in:

    • leanness

    • growth

    • muscling


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Poland China

  • Dual purpose – 8th in USA

  • Warren County, OH

  • black, white on legs, snout and tail

  • drooping ears

  • excels in:

    • growth

    • litter size


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Berkshire

  • Paternal sire – 6th in USA

  • England

  • black, white on legs, snout and tail

  • erect ears

  • excels in:

    • growth

    • leaness

    • muscling


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Pietrain – Belgium – muscle and stress gene

http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/index.htm

Meishan – China - litters

Kele – China - lard

Vietnamese Pot Belly - ???


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Swine Breeds

  • Few (< 1%) purebred hogs in US

    • Used in some purebreed crossing systems

    • Source of known genetics for development of hybrids

  • Crossbreds: 20-30% more efficient in production = HETEROSIS

  • Use terminal and maternal lines and corporate hybrids

    • e.g. Landrace x Yorkshire sows

    • Hampshire x Duroc boars


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Premier Swine Breeding Company

MATERNAL

LINES

TERMINAL

LINES


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Ideal Market Hog-Primary Product

  • Standards set by National Pork Board

    • Market weight = 260 lbs

    • Days to 260 lbs = 160 days avg.

    • Loin eye area = 6.8 sq. in. avg.

    • High fat free lean index

    • from terminal crossbreeding program

    • free of the stress gene

    • from maternal line weaning 25 pigs/sow/year


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Grading Pork Carcasses

  • No standard Quality grades

    • Must have “acceptable” quality to meet standard Grading System

  • USDA # 1, 2, 3, 4, Utility

  • Lean yield from ham, loin, blade shoulder and picnic shoulder

    • 1 > 53%

    • 250 – 52.9

    • 347- 49.9

    • 4< 47

  • Based upon backfat and muscling score


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Pork Quality – PSE pork


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Pork Quality – PSE pork

  • Pale, soft and exudative

    • less appealing to consumer

    • water loss affects yield and profitability for processors

    • associated with porcine stress syndrome

      • homozygous recessive

      • lean, heavily muscled hogs


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Secondary Pork Products

  • Sows – Weight?

    • 270-600 #sJimmy Dean Sausage

  • Boars

    • Taint ….Pizza (all weights)


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Reproductive Management

  • Maximize use of facilities

  • All in – all out system

    • synchronize estrus for these to occur at same time

      • breeding; gestation; farrowing; weaning; finishing


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Reproductive Management

  • Puberty ~ 6 months of age

  • First breeding ~ 8 months and 250 lbs – Why wait?

    • Increase litter size

    • Increase longevity of sow

  • Gestation Length?

    • 114 days

  • Litter size – born, born alive, and weaned?

    • ~11, 10 and 9, respectively

    • Why does this decrease?

      • Environmental, management (sizing litters), etc.


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Reproductive Management

  • Age at Weaning? or How long is lactation period?

    • 10 – 28 days

    • Peak lactation 21 d after farrowing – why wean so early?

      • Health of the baby pigs – Why?

      • Cheaper to feed directly than to feed sow to make milk

  • Rebreeding – when rebred for a second litter?

    • First insemination at 4-7 days post-weaning

    • Weaning synchronizes estrus


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Annual productivity of swine

  • Litters/sow/year?

    • Weaned at 2 weeks of age

    • Inseminated 7 days post – weaning

      • Assumes pregnant at 21 days post farrowing??

Lactation & Breeding 2

Lactation & Breeding 3

Breeding 1

Gestation 1 – 114 days

Gestation 2 – 114 days

Gestation 3

Jan

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Months


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Annual productivity of swine

  • Litters/sow/year?

    • Three 114 d gestations and three 21 d post partum periods = 405 days = 1.11 year for 3 litters

    • = 3/1.11 or 2.7 litters/year

Lactation & Breeding 2

Lactation & Breeding 3

Breeding 1

Gestation 1 – 114 days

Gestation 2 – 114 days

Gestation 3

Jan

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Months


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Annual productivity of swine

  • Litters/sow/year?

    • Three 114 d gestations and three 21 d post partum periods = 405 days = 1.11 year for 3 litters

    • = 3/1.11 or 2.7 litters/year

  • In a perfect herd of 100 sows

    • 100 sows x 2.7 litters/sow x 9 pigs/litter = 2430 pig/year

  • Is this what happens in the industry??


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Annual productivity of swine

  • Factors that affect # pigs produced?

    • Age at weaning?

    • Culling rate?

    • # pigs weaned/sow

  • In a realistic situation, often have a 30% culling rate for each gestation. e.g.

    • 100 sows x 9 pigs/litter = 900 pigs from first gestation

    • 70 sows x 9 pigs/litter = 630 pigs from second gestation

    • 49 sows x 9 pigs/litter = 441 pigs from third gestation

  • This equals 1971 pigs/1.11 years, or 1791 pigs/year


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Annual productivity of swine

  • This equals 1971 pigs/1.11 years, or 1791 pigs/year

  • 1791 pigs/9 pigs in a litter = 199 litters

  • 199 litters from original 100 sows in a year =

    • 1.99 litters/sow/year.

    • National average is ~ 2 litters/sow/year


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  • Slides beyond this point not covered in 2005 Winter, and will not be on the exam.


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Health Management

  • Disease PREVENTION

    • Antibiotic feed additives

      • ie. Mecadox, Tylan, etc.

    • Vaccinations

    • Biosecurity

      • Minimize disease transmission by:

        • Limited introduction of new animals - AI

        • Shower in – shower out

        • vehicles, equipment, rodents, flies, etc.


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Nutritional Management

  • Monogastric – Limited ability to digest fiber

  • Finely ground feed or pellets

  • Typical ration ingredients:

    • Corn – energy

    • Soybean meal – protein (lysine 1st limiting)

    • Dicalcium phosphate; limestone – Ca, P

    • Vitamin, Trace mineral premix


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Nutritional Management

  • Boars & gestating females

    • Restricted & individual feeding

  • Lactating sows

    • Increased energy & protein

    • Minimize weight loss

  • Nursing piglets

    • Creep feed


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Nutritional Management

  • Weaned (Nursery) pigs

    • 20-22% protein (dried plasma; whey)

    • Affects health & performance later

  • Grower (Finisher) Pigs

    • maximize growth

      • energy & protein

    • ad libitum

      • always feed available


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Stages of Production

  • Breeding & Farrowing

    • Gestation, Farrowing, Breeding

  • Nursery/Feeder Pigs

  • Finishing/Grower


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Types of Swine Operations

  • Integrated corporate production

    • ie. Murphy – Brown, LLC., Premium Standard

    • Farrow-to-Finish (farrow = swine birthing)

    • All segments but at different sites for biosecurity

      • Seedstock, breeding/farrowing, nursery/feeder pigs, finishers


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Types of Swine Operations

  • Purebred or Seedstock production

    • PIC – Pig Improvement Company, DEKALB, etc.

    • sell purebred or planned crossbred breeding stock

    • sell boars, gilts


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Types of Swine Operations

  • Nursery/Feeder Pig production

    • sell weaned pigs (10-15 lbs) or feeder pigs (35-50 lbs)

  • Grower/Finisher

    • purchase feeder or weaned pigs

    • sell market hogs to harvest

    • maintain breeding stock

      Can be contracted by corporations


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Types of Swine Operations

  • Farrow-to-finish

    • Retain breeding stock

    • Bred females farrow

    • Feed pigs to harvest weights (250 lbs)

    • Sell finished pigs to harvest

    • Smaller farms


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Swine Facilities

Finisher

Free Range

Nursery or Finisher with Lagoons

Sow Farm


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