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Domestication of Animals Domesticate: to adapt the behavior of an animal to fit the needs of people Domestication of animals began when humans had contact with wild animals long ago. Humans then started to confine wild animals to ensure a supply of food and clothing.

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Domestication of Animals

  • Domesticate: to adapt the behavior of an animal to fit the needs of people


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  • Domestication of animals began when humans had contact with wild animals long ago. Humans then started to confine wild animals to ensure a supply of food and clothing.

  • These animals were bred in captivity. Later humans picked animals with desirable traits to use for breeding.

  • When man started to domesticate animals he began a more settled way of life.


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Cattle therefore, the labor was divided amongst the tribe.

  • Bos taurus are domestic cattle that came from either the Aurochs or the Celtic Shorthorn.

  • Bos indicus are the humped cattle found in tropical climates. They are more tolerant to some diseases, parasites, and heat than are cattle that came from Bos taurus.


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  • Early pioneers took both dairy cattle and beef cattle with them on their journey west. Before the 1850s, every family had at least one or two dairy cows to provide milk and butter. By the second half of the nineteenth century, however, dairy herds began to become larger because of the increase in the dairy market.


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  • Selection: 1940s when they reached a peak.. Since then, the dairy cattle population has been steadily declining. to identify and use for breeding purposes those animals with traits that are considered by the breeder to be desirable.

  • Crossbreeding: the mating of animals of different breeds.


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Swine 1940s when they reached a peak.. Since then, the dairy cattle population has been steadily declining.

  • American breeds of swine come form two wild stocks: the European wild boar and the East Indian pig.


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Sheep quickly in size and soon production was soon more than the local need.

  • Sheep were one of the first animals tamed by the human race. The ancestry of sheep is not as known as the other domestic animals. There are more than 200 breeds of sheep in the world. All of them are timid, defenseless, and the least intelligent of the tamed animals.


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  • Sheep were used by the early colonist mainly for their wool production

  • The Northeastern part of the US was the sheep-producing center of the country by the 1810. The sheep population increased until, by 1840, there were 19 million sheep in the US. The center of the sheep-producing moved west when inexpensive rangeland became available.


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Goats production

  • Goats may have been the first tamed animals in Western Asia.

  • Goats are closely related to sheep.


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Differences Between Goats and Sheep production

  • Sheep have stockier bodies than goats.

  • Goats have shorter tails than sheep.

  • Goat horns are long and grow upward, backward, and outward; sheep horns are spirally twisted.


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  • Male goats have beards; male sheep do not. production

  • Male goats give off a strong odor in the rutting (breeding) season; male sheep do not.

  • Goats do not have scent glands in the face and feet; sheep do have these scent glands.


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Horses ability to fight and fend for themselves than do sheep.

  • The horse evolved from a tiny four-toed ancestor called Eohippus.

  • Eohippus was about a foot high and lived in swamps about 58 million years ago. The Eohippus grew gradually, and eventually adapted to the prairie.


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  • The early development of the horse was in the US was mostly associated with riding on plantations.

  • Horse racing developed into a sport in the 1700s and early 1800s.

  • With development of other power sources, the use of the draft horse on farms became less common.

  • Most Horses in US are used for recreation.


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Poultry associated with riding on plantations.

  • Chickens were being raised by the Chinese about 1400 B.C.

  • Although poultry and eggs were used for food early in history, poultry raising has only recently become a major commercial enterprise.


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  • Poultry were brought to the New World by the early pioneers and colonists.

  • The American poultry industry grew out o f the small home flocks raised by early settlers. Poultry raising used to be mainly a small enterprise on the farm, however, as the population grew, the demand for poultry products increased.


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Consumption of Livestock Products few small farm flocks remain. Much of the poultry industry is concentrated in the southern part of the United States.

  • In recent years, there has been a decrease in per capita consumption of red meats, dairy products, and eggs.

  • Per capita consumption of chicken and turkey has increased.


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Animal Identification among producers, packers, and processors to meet consumer concerns.

  • There are a variety of methods currently used to identify animals. These include ear tags, ear notching, tattoos, electronic collars, electronic ear tags, ear buttons, implants, microchips, and rumen boluses with microchips installed.


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Food Safety system of unique identifying numbers that can be utilized with one or more of the methods currently in use of livestock ID and that can be used to establish a database of information about individual animals.

  • Even though the US has the safest food supply in the world, food safety is becoming a major area of concern among consumers. Much of this concern is fueled by special-interest groups consumer groups, and the news media.


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  • Some of the major issues regarding food safety include: system of unique identifying numbers that can be utilized with one or more of the methods currently in use of livestock ID and that can be used to establish a database of information about individual animals.

    *Bacteria contamination

    *Pesticides in food

    *Drug residues in food

    *Irradiation of food

    *Genetic engineering

    *Contamination of food by processors


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