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Operating System Overview. OS Objectives and Functions Evolution of the OS Major Achievements Modern OS Characteristics Windows 2000 UNIX. Operating System. A program that controls the execution of application programs An interface between applications and hardware.

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Operating System Overview

  • OS Objectives and Functions

  • Evolution of the OS

  • Major Achievements

  • Modern OS Characteristics

  • Windows 2000

  • UNIX


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Operating System

  • A program that controls the execution of application programs

  • An interface between applications and hardware


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Operating System Objectives

  • Convenience

    • Makes the computer more convenient to use

  • Efficiency

    • Allows computer system resources to be used in an efficient manner

  • Ability to evolve

    • Permit effective development, testing, and introduction of new system functions without interfering with service



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Services Provided by the Operating System

  • Program development

  • Access to I/O devices

  • System access


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Services Provided by the Operating System

  • Error detection and response

    • internal and external hardware errors

    • software errors

    • operating system cannot grant request of application



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Operating System

  • Functions same way as ordinary computer software

    • It is program that is executed

  • Operating system relinquishes control of the processor to execute other programs


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Kernel

  • Contains most-frequently used functions


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Evolution of an Operating System

  • Hardware upgrades and new types of hardware

  • New services

  • Fixes


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Evolution of Operating Systems

  • Serial Processing

    • Machines run from a console with display lights and toggle switches, input device, and printer

    • Schedule tome


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Evolution of Operating Systems

  • Simple Batch Systems

    • Monitors


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Job Control Language (JCL)

  • Special type of programming language


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Hardware Features

  • do not allow the memory area containing the monitor to be altered

  • prevents a job from monopolizing the system


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Uniprogramming

  • Processor must wait for I/O instruction to complete before preceding


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Multiprogramming

  • When one job needs to wait for I/O, the processor can switch to the other job



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Example

JOB1 JOB2 JOB3

Type of job Heavy compute Heavy I/O Heavy I/O

Duration 5 min. 15 min. 10 min.

Memory required 50K 100 K 80 K

Need disk? No No Yes

Need terminal No Yes No

Need printer? No No Yes


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Effects of Multiprogramming

Uniprogramming Multiprogramming

Processor use 22% 43%

Memory use 30% 67%

Disk use 33% 67%

Printer use 33% 67%

Elapsed time 30 min. 15 min.

Throughput rate 6 jobs/hr 12 jobs/hr

Mean response time 18 min. 10 min.




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Major Achievements

  • Processes

  • Information protection and security

  • System structure


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Processes

  • An instance of a program running on a computer

  • The entity that can be assigned to and executed on a processor


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Difficulties with Designing System Software

  • Improper synchronization

    • ensure a process waiting for an I/O device receives the signal

  • Deadlocks


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Process

  • Consists of three components

    • All information the operating system needs to manage the process



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Memory Management

  • Process isolation

  • Protection and access control


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Virtual Memory

  • Allows programmers to address memory from a logical point of view


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File System

  • Implements long-term store

  • Information stored in named objects called files


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Paging

  • Virtual address is a page number and an offset within the page

  • Real address or physical address in main memory



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Information Protection and Security

  • Access control

  • Information flow control

  • Certification


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Scheduling and Resource Management

  • give equal and fair access to all processes

  • discriminate between different classes of jobs

  • maximize throughput, minimize response time, and accommodate as many uses as possible


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Major Elements ofOperating System



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Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems

  • Microkernel architecture

    • assigns only a few essential functions to the kernel


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Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems

  • Multithreading

  • Thread

  • Process is a collection of one or more threads



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Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems

  • Distributed operating systems




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Windows 2000 Architecture

  • Modular structure for flexibility

  • Executes on a variety of hardware platforms


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OS Organization

  • Modified microkernel architecture

  • Any module can be removed, upgraded, or replaced without rewriting the entire system


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Layered Structure

  • Hardware abstraction layer (HAL)

  • Microkernel

  • Device drivers


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W2K Executive

  • I/O manager

  • Security reference monitor

  • Local procedure call (LPC) Facility

  • Cache manager


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User Processes

  • Special system support processes

    • Ex: logon process and the session manager

  • User applications


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Client/Server Model

  • Simplifies the Executive

  • Improves reliability

  • Provides a uniform means fro applications to communicate via LPC

  • Provides base for distributed computing


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Threads and SMP

  • Different routines can execute simultaneously on different processors

  • Multiple threads of execution within a single process may execute on different processors simultaneously


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UNIX

  • Hardware is surrounded by the operating-system

  • Comes with a number of user services and interfaces



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Modern UNIX Systems

  • System V Release 4 (SVR4)

    • University of California at Berkley


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LINUX

  • Developed by Linux Torvalds

  • Portable Operating System based on UNIX (POSIX) compliant

  • GNU (GNU’s Not LINUX) Project

  • General Public License


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LINUX Features

  • Virtual Memory

  • Lightweight processes

    • Operate in a common address space, common physical memory space, common opened files

  • Support for Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems


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LINUX Advantages

  • Fully Customizable in All Components

  • Runs on Low-End Hardware

  • Powerful


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LINUX on the Web

  • LINUX Online - www.linux.org

  • LINUX HQ - edge.linuxhq.com

  • LINUX Today - linuxtoday.com

  • Red Hat - www.redhat.com

  • LINUX Central - linuxcentral.com


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