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Operating System Overview. OS Objectives and Functions Evolution of the OS Major Achievements Modern OS Characteristics Windows 2000 UNIX. Operating System. A program that controls the execution of application programs An interface between applications and hardware.

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operating system overview
Operating System Overview
  • OS Objectives and Functions
  • Evolution of the OS
  • Major Achievements
  • Modern OS Characteristics
  • Windows 2000
  • UNIX
operating system
Operating System
  • A program that controls the execution of application programs
  • An interface between applications and hardware
operating system objectives
Operating System Objectives
  • Convenience
    • Makes the computer more convenient to use
  • Efficiency
    • Allows computer system resources to be used in an efficient manner
  • Ability to evolve
    • Permit effective development, testing, and introduction of new system functions without interfering with service
services provided by the operating system
Services Provided by the Operating System
  • Program development
  • Access to I/O devices
  • System access
services provided by the operating system6
Services Provided by the Operating System
  • Error detection and response
    • internal and external hardware errors
    • software errors
    • operating system cannot grant request of application
operating system8
Operating System
  • Functions same way as ordinary computer software
    • It is program that is executed
  • Operating system relinquishes control of the processor to execute other programs
  • Contains most-frequently used functions
evolution of an operating system
Evolution of an Operating System
  • Hardware upgrades and new types of hardware
  • New services
  • Fixes
evolution of operating systems
Evolution of Operating Systems
  • Serial Processing
    • Machines run from a console with display lights and toggle switches, input device, and printer
    • Schedule tome
evolution of operating systems13
Evolution of Operating Systems
  • Simple Batch Systems
    • Monitors
job control language jcl
Job Control Language (JCL)
  • Special type of programming language
hardware features
Hardware Features
  • do not allow the memory area containing the monitor to be altered
  • prevents a job from monopolizing the system
  • Processor must wait for I/O instruction to complete before preceding
  • When one job needs to wait for I/O, the processor can switch to the other job


Type of job Heavy compute Heavy I/O Heavy I/O

Duration 5 min. 15 min. 10 min.

Memory required 50K 100 K 80 K

Need disk? No No Yes

Need terminal No Yes No

Need printer? No No Yes

effects of multiprogramming
Effects of Multiprogramming

Uniprogramming Multiprogramming

Processor use 22% 43%

Memory use 30% 67%

Disk use 33% 67%

Printer use 33% 67%

Elapsed time 30 min. 15 min.

Throughput rate 6 jobs/hr 12 jobs/hr

Mean response time 18 min. 10 min.

major achievements
Major Achievements
  • Processes
  • Information protection and security
  • System structure
  • An instance of a program running on a computer
  • The entity that can be assigned to and executed on a processor
difficulties with designing system software
Difficulties with Designing System Software
  • Improper synchronization
    • ensure a process waiting for an I/O device receives the signal
  • Deadlocks
  • Consists of three components
      • All information the operating system needs to manage the process
memory management
Memory Management
  • Process isolation
  • Protection and access control
virtual memory
Virtual Memory
  • Allows programmers to address memory from a logical point of view
file system
File System
  • Implements long-term store
  • Information stored in named objects called files
  • Virtual address is a page number and an offset within the page
  • Real address or physical address in main memory
information protection and security
Information Protection and Security
  • Access control
  • Information flow control
  • Certification
scheduling and resource management
Scheduling and Resource Management
  • give equal and fair access to all processes
  • discriminate between different classes of jobs
  • maximize throughput, minimize response time, and accommodate as many uses as possible
characteristics of modern operating systems
Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems
  • Microkernel architecture
    • assigns only a few essential functions to the kernel
characteristics of modern operating systems39
Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems
  • Multithreading
  • Thread
  • Process is a collection of one or more threads
characteristics of modern operating systems41
Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems
  • Distributed operating systems
windows 2000 architecture
Windows 2000 Architecture
  • Modular structure for flexibility
  • Executes on a variety of hardware platforms
os organization
OS Organization
  • Modified microkernel architecture
  • Any module can be removed, upgraded, or replaced without rewriting the entire system
layered structure
Layered Structure
  • Hardware abstraction layer (HAL)
  • Microkernel
  • Device drivers
w2k executive
W2K Executive
  • I/O manager
  • Security reference monitor
  • Local procedure call (LPC) Facility
  • Cache manager
user processes
User Processes
  • Special system support processes
    • Ex: logon process and the session manager
  • User applications
client server model
Client/Server Model
  • Simplifies the Executive
  • Improves reliability
  • Provides a uniform means fro applications to communicate via LPC
  • Provides base for distributed computing
threads and smp
Threads and SMP
  • Different routines can execute simultaneously on different processors
  • Multiple threads of execution within a single process may execute on different processors simultaneously
  • Hardware is surrounded by the operating-system
  • Comes with a number of user services and interfaces
modern unix systems
Modern UNIX Systems
  • System V Release 4 (SVR4)
    • University of California at Berkley
  • Developed by Linux Torvalds
  • Portable Operating System based on UNIX (POSIX) compliant
  • GNU (GNU’s Not LINUX) Project
  • General Public License
linux features
LINUX Features
  • Virtual Memory
  • Lightweight processes
    • Operate in a common address space, common physical memory space, common opened files
  • Support for Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) systems
linux advantages
LINUX Advantages
  • Fully Customizable in All Components
  • Runs on Low-End Hardware
  • Powerful
linux on the web
LINUX on the Web
  • LINUX Online - www.linux.org
  • LINUX HQ - edge.linuxhq.com
  • LINUX Today - linuxtoday.com
  • Red Hat - www.redhat.com
  • LINUX Central - linuxcentral.com