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OSP An Environment for Operating System Project by Kifer and Smolka, Addison Wesley, 1991 ... Portion of operating system that is resident in main memory ...

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Operating System Overview

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Operating System Overview

Chapter 2


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Announcements

  • Homework 0 will be posted today, due next Wednesday (September 17) at noon

  • Project requires the following book

    • OSP An Environment for Operating System Project by Kifer and Smolka, Addison Wesley, 1991

    • first project assignment will be posted next week


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Basic computer structure

Memory

CPU

memory bus

I/O bus

disk

Net interface


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Memory caches

  • motivated by the mismatch between processor and memory speed

  • closer to the processor than the main memory

  • smaller and faster than the main memory

  • act as “attraction memory”: contains the value of main memory locations which were recently accessed (temporal locality)

  • transfer between caches and main memory is performed in units called cache blocks/lines

  • caches contain also the value of memory locations which are close to locations which were recently accessed (spatial locality)


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Cache design issues

  • cache size and cache block size

  • mapping: physical/virtual caches, associativity

  • replacement algorithm: LRU

  • write policy: write through/write back

cpu

word transfer

cache

block transfer

main

memory


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Memory Hierarchy

  • decrease cost per bit

  • decrease frequency of access

  • increase capacity

  • increase access time

  • increase size of transfer unit

cpu

word transfer

cache

block transfer

main memory

page transfer

disks


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Data transfer on the bus

  • cache-memory: cache misses, write-through/write-back

  • memory-disk: swapping, paging, file accesses

  • memory-Network Interface : packet send/receive

  • I/O devices to the processor: interrupts

CPU

Memory

cache

memory bus

I/O bus

disk

Net interface


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Direct Memory Access (DMA)

  • bulk data transfer between memory and an I/O device (disk, network interface) initiated by the processor

  • address of the I/O device

  • starting location in memory

  • number of bytes

  • direction of transfer (read/write from/to memory)

  • processor interrupted when the operation completes

  • bus arbitration between cache-memory and DMA transfers

  • memory cache must be consistent with DMA


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Multiprocessors

  • simple scheme: more than one processor on the same bus

  • memory is shared among processors-- cache consistency

  • bus contention increases -- does not scale

  • alternative (non-bus) system interconnect -- expensive

  • single-image operating systems

CPU

CPU

Memory

cache

cache

memory bus

I/O bus

disk

Net interface


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Multicomputers

  • network of computers: “share-nothing” -- cheap

  • communication through message-passing: difficult to program

  • challenge: build efficient shared memory abstraction in software

  • each system runs its own operating system

CPU

CPU

Memory

Memory

cache

cache

memory bus

memory bus

I/O bus

I/O bus

network

disk

Net interface

disk

Net interface


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Operating System

  • A program that controls the execution of application programs

  • An interface between applications and hardware


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Operating System Objectives

  • Convenience

    • Makes the computer more convenient to use

  • Efficiency

    • Allows computer system resources to be used in an efficient manner

  • Ability to evolve

    • Permit effective development, testing, and introduction of new system functions without interfering with service


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Layers of Computer System


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Services Provided by the Operating System

  • Program development

    • Editors and debuggers

  • Program execution

  • Access to I/O devices

  • Protected access to files


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Services Provided by the Operating System

  • Error detection and response

    • internal and external hardware errors

      • memory error

      • device failure

    • software errors

      • arithmetic overflow

      • access forbidden memory locations

    • error recovery


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Services Provided by the Operating System

  • Accounting

    • collect statistics

    • monitor performance

    • used to anticipate future enhancements

    • used for billing users


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Operating System

  • Functions same way as ordinary computer software

    • It is a program that is executed to service requests coming

      • from applications: system calls

      • from the hardware: interrupts

  • Operating system services the request, then relinquishes control of the processor to execute other programs


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Kernel

  • Portion of operating system that is resident in main memory

  • Contains a machine-independent part (code for system calls) and a machine-dependent part (device drivers)

  • Maintains the OS state

  • Executes in privileged/supervisor mode


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Evolution of Operating Systems

  • Serial Processing

    • No operating system

    • Machines run from a console with display lights and toggle switches, input device, and printer

    • Schedule tome

    • Setup included loading the compiler, source program, saving compiled program, and loading and linking


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Evolution of Operating Systems

  • Simple Batch Systems

    • Monitors

      • Software that controls the running programs

      • Batch jobs together

      • Program branches back to monitor when finished

      • Resident monitor is in main memory and available for execution


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Job Control Language (JCL)

  • Special type of programming language

  • Provides instruction to the monitor

    • what compiler to use

    • what data to use


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Hardware Features

  • Memory protection

    • do not allow the memory area containing the monitor to be altered

  • Timer

    • prevents a job from monopolizing the system


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Hardware Features

  • Memory protection

    • do not allow the memory area containing the monitor to be altered

  • Timer

    • prevents a job from monopolizing the system


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Uniprogramming

  • Processor must wait for I/O instruction to complete before preceding


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Multiprogramming

  • When one job needs to wait for I/O, the processor can switch to the other job


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Multiprogramming


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Time Sharing

  • Using multiprogramming to handle multiple interactive jobs

  • Processor’s time is shared among multiple users

  • Multiple users simultaneously access the system through terminals


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Batch Multiprogramming versus Time Sharing


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Main OS Concepts

  • Processes

  • Memory Management

  • Information protection and security

  • Scheduling and resource management

  • System structure


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Processes

  • A program in execution

  • An instance of a program running on a computer

  • The entity that can be assigned to and executed on a processor

  • A unit of activity characterized by a single sequential thread of execution, a current state, and an associated set of system resources


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Difficulties with Designing System Software

  • Improper synchronization

    • ensure a process waiting for an I/O device receives the signal

  • Failed mutual exclusion

  • Nondeterminate program operation

    • program should only depend on input to it, not relying on common memory areas

  • Deadlocks


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Process

  • Consists of three components

    • An executable program

    • Associated data needed by the program

    • Execution context of the program

      • All information the operating system needs to manage the process


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Process


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Memory Management

  • Process isolation

  • Automatic allocation and management

  • Support for modular programming

  • Protection and access control

  • Long-term storage


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Virtual Memory

  • Allows programmers to address memory from a logical point of view


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File System

  • Implements long-term store

  • Information stored in named objects called files


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Paging

  • Allows process to be comprised of a number of fixed-size blocks, called pages

  • Virtual address is a page number and an offset within the page

  • Each page may be located any where in main memory

  • Real address or physical address in main memory


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Virtual Memory Addressing


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Information Protection and Security

  • Access control

    • regulate user access to the system

  • Information flow control

    • regulate flow of data within the system and its delivery to users

  • Certification

    • proving that access and flow control perform according to specifications


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Scheduling and Resource Management

  • Fairness

    • give equal and fair access to all processes

  • Differential responsiveness

    • discriminate between different classes of jobs/users

  • Efficiency

    • maximize throughput, minimize response time, and accommodate as many uses as possible


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Major Elements ofOperating System


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System Structure

  • View the system as a series of levels

  • Each level performs a related subset of functions

  • Each level relies on the next lower level to perform more primitive functions

  • This decomposes a problem into a number of more manageable subproblems


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Operating System Design Hierarchy

  • LevelNameObjectsExample Operations

  • 4InterruptsInterrupt-handlingInvoke, mask, unmask, retry

  • programs

  • ProceduresProcedures, call stack, Mark stack, call, return

  • display

  • 2Instruction SetEvaluation stack, micro-Load, store, add, subtract

  • program interpreter,branch

  • scalar and array data

  • 1Electronic circuitsRegisters, gates, buses,Clear, transfer, activate,

  • etc.complement


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Operating System Design Hierarchy

LevelNameObjectsExample Operations

7Virtual MemorySegments, pagesRead, write, fetch

6Local secondaryBlocks of data, deviceRead, write, allocate, free

storechannels

5Primitive processesPrimitive process,Suspend, resume, wait, signal

semaphores, ready

list


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Operating System Design Hierarchy

LevelNameObjectsExample Operations

13ShellUser programmingStatements in shell language

environment

12User processesUser processesQuit, kill, suspend, resume

11DirectoriesDirectoriesCreate, destroy, attach, detach,

search, list

10DevicesExternal devices, suchOpen, close,

as printer, displaysread, write

and keyboards

9File systemFilesCreate, destroy, open, close

read, write

8CommunicationsPipesCreate, destroy, open. close,

read, write


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Traditional OS structure

  • monolithic/layered systems

  • one/N layers all executed in “kernel-mode”

  • good performance but rigid

user

process

user

system calls

memory

system

file

system

OS kernel

hardware


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Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems

  • Microkernel architecture

    • assigns only a few essential functions to the kernel

      • address space

      • interprocess communication (IPC)

      • basic scheduling


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Micro-kernel OS

memory

server

client

process

file

server

user mode

IPC

micro-kernel

hardware

  • client-server model, IPC between clients and servers

  • the micro-kernel provides protected communication

  • OS functions implemented as user-level servers

  • flexible but efficiency is the problem

  • easy to extend for distributed systems


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Extensible OS kernel

process

process

user mode

my

memory

service

default

memory

service

extensible kernel

hardware

  • user processes can load customized OS services into the kernel

  • good performance but protection and scalability become problems


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Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems

  • Multithreading

    • process is divided into threads that can run simultaneously

  • Thread

    • dispatchable unit of work

    • executes sequentially and is interruptable

  • Process is a collection of one or more threads and associated system resources


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Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems

  • Symmetric multiprocessing

    • there are multiple processors

    • these processors share same main memory and I/O facilities

    • All processors can perform the same functions


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Characteristics of Modern Operating Systems

  • Distributed operating systems

    • provides the illusion of a single main memory and single secondary memory space

    • used for distributed file system


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UNIX

  • Hardware is surrounded by the operating-system

  • Operating system is called the kernel

  • Comes with a number of user services and interfaces

    • shell

    • C compiler


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UNIX


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Modern UNIX Systems

  • System V Release 4 (SVR4)

  • Solaris 2.x

  • 4.4BSD

  • Linux


  • Login