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Dwight K. Jesseman. St. Johns County Agricultural Agent. Nematology. Basic Principles for Master Gardeners. Types of Nematodes. Plant Parasitic Predatory Entomophagous Free Living Marine. Plant Parasitic. Predatory. Entomophagous. Free Living. Marine. Morphology and Anatomy.

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Dwight K. Jesseman

St. Johns County

Agricultural Agent


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Nematology

  • Basic Principles for Master Gardeners


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Types of Nematodes

  • Plant Parasitic

  • Predatory

  • Entomophagous

  • Free Living

  • Marine







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Morphology and Anatomy

  • Animals

  • Round Worms

  • Size 0.25mm to 3.0mm

  • Layered Cuticle

  • Vermiform, Globose, Kidney Shaped






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Life Cycle and Reproduction

  • Egg - 50 to 500

  • Four Juvenile Stages

  • Adult

  • Male and Female in Most Species

  • Life Cycle Dependant on Soil Temperatures

  • Move Slowly



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Feeding

  • Oral Stylet or Spear

  • Inject Enzymes

  • Digest Cell Contents



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Host- Parasite Relationship

  • Migratory Ectoparasitic

    • Ring, Spiral

  • Migratory Endoparasitic

    • Lesion, Burrowing

  • Sedentary Endoparasitic

    • Root-Knot, Cyst, Reniform, Citrus





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Diagnoses

  • Very Difficult at Times

  • Poor Growth

  • Combination of Problems

  • Assay of Soil and/or Plant Tissue

  • Symptoms


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Above-Ground

  • Rarely Sufficient

  • Chlorosis

  • Dieback

  • Melting out

  • Reduced Growth

  • Water Stressed



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Below-Ground

  • Root Galls

  • Root Swellings

  • Abbreviated Root System

  • Root Rot

  • Cyst Nematodes





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Field History

  • Gradual Decline

  • Area - Small to Large

  • Rotation of Crops


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Laboratory Assay

  • Soil and Plant Tissue

  • Relative Population Densities

  • Economic Thresholds


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Nematode Management

  • Prevention

  • Crop Rotation

  • Crop Root Destruction

  • Flooding and Fallowing

  • Resistance

  • Biological Control

  • Nematicides


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Home Garden

  • Container Growing

  • Site Selection

  • Crop Rotation

  • Soil Tillage and Root Destruction

  • Amendments

    • Organic Matter

    • Green Manures


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Home Garden

  • Planting Time

  • Nematode - Free Transplants

  • Resistant Varieties

  • Soil Solarization

  • Chemical Control


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Soil Solarization

  • Cover for at least 4 weeks

  • Well Tilled

  • High Moisture

  • Slightly Raised Beds

  • Crown the Bed


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Soil Solarization

  • Clear Polyethylene

  • Thin Plastic 1 to 2 mil

  • Leave in Place Until Planting

  • Avoid Contaminated Plants or Soil


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Soil Temperatures

  • Tarped Soils 111 to 122

  • 115 - Water Molds

  • 120 - Nematodes

  • 140 - Most Fungi

  • 150 - Most Soil Insects

  • 160 - Most Viruses and Bacteria

  • 170 - Most Weed Seeds


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Ornamentals

  • Site Preparation

  • Treat Soil

    • Fumigation

    • Soil Solarazition

  • Replace Infested Soil

  • Root Barriers


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Ornamentals

  • Nematode-Free Stock

  • Well Adapted Plants

  • Resistant Plants

  • Maintenance

  • Mulches

  • Other Pests

  • Chemical Control


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Turf

  • Biological Controls

  • Resistant Plants

  • Chemical Control

    • Fumigation Before Planting


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Resistance

  • Bahiagrasses - Tolerant of Most

  • Centipedegrasses - Ring, Sting, Sheath

  • St. Augustinegrasses -Sting, Lance

  • Bermudagrasses - Sting, Lance, Stubby

  • Zoysiagrasses - Most nematodes


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Basimid Granular Use

  • Compost Piles

  • Potting Soils

  • Seed and Propagation Beds

  • Soil Media

  • Establishing Turf and Ornamental Sites

  • Not for Use in Vegetable Gardens

  • READ THE LABEL, IT IS THE LAW



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