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Artificial Insemination. History of Artificial Insemination. 1322- Arab Chief stole semen from an arabian stallion belonging to another chief to breed his prized mare 1780- Successful AI of Dogs 1900’s – Livestock Became popular in cattle 1960’s & 70’s

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History of artificial insemination l.jpg
History of Artificial Insemination

  • 1322- Arab Chief stole semen from an arabian stallion belonging to another chief to breed his prized mare

  • 1780- Successful AI of Dogs

  • 1900’s – Livestock

    • Became popular in cattle 1960’s & 70’s

    • Sucessful in Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Swine, Horses, Dogs, Cats, Poultry, Lab Animals, Humans, and Insects.


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Advantages of Using AI

  • Maximize use of outstanding sires. Thus, enhancing the genetic value of the herd.

  • Providing access to high quality sires at modest prices. Also, avoid price of ownership.

  • Improve herd by selecting the best sire match for female.

  • Records and genetic traits available

  • Prevention of disease transmission(std’s)


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Advantages Continued

  • Shortening of the birthing season

  • Improved merchandising through the use of well publicized sires with known reputations.

  • Increased safety – no aggressive males on farm (bull, stallion)

  • “Life Insurance” for the sire, will still have offspring after he is deceased.


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Disadvantages of Using AI

  • Requires skilled technician.

  • More labor intensive, females must be watched to detect estrus.

  • Must have special handling facilities.

  • Training sires for collection

  • Accentuates poor traits if a poor sire is selected

  • May increase the spread of disease


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Process of Artificial Insemination

  • Semen Collection

    • Two methods

      • Artificial vaginas

      • electroejaculation

  • Semen Processing, Storage and Handling

  • Insemination


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Semen Collection

  • Male is trained to mount a teaser animal or dummy

  • Penis is directed into an artificial vagina that is temperature controlled to be the same temperature as the female.

  • Ejaculation occurs


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Frequency of collection

  • Bulls

    • Twice a day – 2 days/week- frozen semen

    • Three times a week otherwise

  • Sheep

    • Many times a day for several weeks

  • Boars and Stallions

    • Every other day

    • If everyday is required for short period, let rest for 2-3 days between intensive collection.


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Semen Processing

  • Dillution

    • Can be diluted so that more animals can be bred with one ejaculate

  • Freezing

    • Use liquid nitrogen at -320°F

  • Storage

    • Put into ampules or plastic straws.

  • Liquid nitrogen tanks

  • Horse and swine semen is generally not frozen


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Insemination

  • Estrus detection in female

  • Timing is important – sperm need to be injected into oviduct at ovulation

  • Semen is thawed and placed in inseminating device.

  • Technician inserts speculum into female reproductive tract into cervix

  • Inseminating tube is inserted and sperm is deposited.


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Procedures reproductive tract of females.

  • Cattle

    • Rectovaginal technique -Straw inseminating gun or pipet

  • Sheep

    • Speculum – straw inseminating gun or pipet

    • Laparoscopic insemination (most common)

      • Semen is deposited directly into the uterine horns by way of surgical procedure.

  • Swine

    • Cork screw pipet

      • pipet is hooked to bottle containing semen

  • Horse

    • Vaginal method

      • Straw inseminating gun or pipet


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