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Artificial Insemination. History of Artificial Insemination. 1322- Arab Chief stole semen from an arabian stallion belonging to another chief to breed his prized mare 1780- Successful AI of Dogs 1900’s – Livestock Became popular in cattle 1960’s & 70’s

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history of artificial insemination
History of Artificial Insemination
  • 1322- Arab Chief stole semen from an arabian stallion belonging to another chief to breed his prized mare
  • 1780- Successful AI of Dogs
  • 1900’s – Livestock
    • Became popular in cattle 1960’s & 70’s
    • Sucessful in Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Swine, Horses, Dogs, Cats, Poultry, Lab Animals, Humans, and Insects.
advantages of using ai
Advantages of Using AI
  • Maximize use of outstanding sires. Thus, enhancing the genetic value of the herd.
  • Providing access to high quality sires at modest prices. Also, avoid price of ownership.
  • Improve herd by selecting the best sire match for female.
  • Records and genetic traits available
  • Prevention of disease transmission(std’s)
advantages continued
Advantages Continued
  • Shortening of the birthing season
  • Improved merchandising through the use of well publicized sires with known reputations.
  • Increased safety – no aggressive males on farm (bull, stallion)
  • “Life Insurance” for the sire, will still have offspring after he is deceased.
disadvantages of using ai
Disadvantages of Using AI
  • Requires skilled technician.
  • More labor intensive, females must be watched to detect estrus.
  • Must have special handling facilities.
  • Training sires for collection
  • Accentuates poor traits if a poor sire is selected
  • May increase the spread of disease
process of artificial insemination
Process of Artificial Insemination
  • Semen Collection
    • Two methods
      • Artificial vaginas
      • electroejaculation
  • Semen Processing, Storage and Handling
  • Insemination
semen collection
Semen Collection
  • Male is trained to mount a teaser animal or dummy
  • Penis is directed into an artificial vagina that is temperature controlled to be the same temperature as the female.
  • Ejaculation occurs
frequency of collection
Frequency of collection
  • Bulls
    • Twice a day – 2 days/week- frozen semen
    • Three times a week otherwise
  • Sheep
    • Many times a day for several weeks
  • Boars and Stallions
    • Every other day
    • If everyday is required for short period, let rest for 2-3 days between intensive collection.
semen processing
Semen Processing
  • Dillution
    • Can be diluted so that more animals can be bred with one ejaculate
  • Freezing
    • Use liquid nitrogen at -320°F
  • Storage
    • Put into ampules or plastic straws.
  • Liquid nitrogen tanks
  • Horse and swine semen is generally not frozen
insemination
Insemination
  • Estrus detection in female
  • Timing is important – sperm need to be injected into oviduct at ovulation
  • Semen is thawed and placed in inseminating device.
  • Technician inserts speculum into female reproductive tract into cervix
  • Inseminating tube is inserted and sperm is deposited.
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Technician is well trained to avoid damaging the reproductive tract of females.
  • Cleanliness and sterilization are very important to reduce disease transmission.
procedures
Procedures
  • Cattle
    • Rectovaginal technique -Straw inseminating gun or pipet
  • Sheep
    • Speculum – straw inseminating gun or pipet
    • Laparoscopic insemination (most common)
      • Semen is deposited directly into the uterine horns by way of surgical procedure.
  • Swine
    • Cork screw pipet
      • pipet is hooked to bottle containing semen
  • Horse
    • Vaginal method
      • Straw inseminating gun or pipet
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