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Richard Giragosian Armenian Center for National and International Studies (ACNIS) Yerevan, Armenia 8-9 December 2010

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Addressing Terrorist Use of the Internet, Cyber Crime and Other Threats: National Expert Workshop Forging a Comprehensive Approach to Cyber Security. Richard Giragosian Armenian Center for National and International Studies (ACNIS) Yerevan, Armenia 8-9 December 2010. Outline.

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Addressing Terrorist Use of the Internet, Cyber Crime and Other Threats: National Expert Workshop Forging a Comprehensive Approach to Cyber Security

Richard Giragosian

Armenian Center for National and International Studies (ACNIS)

Yerevan, Armenia

8-9 December 2010

  • Framing the issue: cyber security
    • Significance of cyber security
    • Fundamentals of cyber security
  • Cyber crime
  • Implications for Armenia
    • Social/political
    • Economic
    • Military/security
  • Critical infrastructure
  • Cyber challenges & cyber security goals
  • Conclusions
framing the issue a comprehensive approach to cyber security
Framing the Issue: A Comprehensive Approach to Cyber Security
  • Cyber security requires shared solutions to shared threats
  • Cyber security is a dynamic, not static process
  • Cyber threats know no borders
significance of cyber security
Significance of Cyber Security

Cyber Security provides three elements:

  • Engagement: foundation for economic, social and political development
  • Empowerment: platform for activism and social networking for “netizens”
  • Entrepreneurship: incentive for technological innovation and R&D

Cyber Security is also necessary for the development of a knowledge-based economy

fundamentals of cyber security
Fundamentals of Cyber Security
  • Cyber threat preparation: raising awareness and public education of prudent and safe use of Internet
  • Cyber threat perception: understanding the nature of cyber threats
  • Cyber Threat prevention: defending against cyber threats before, not after cyber attacks
cyber crime
Cyber Crime
  • Cyber Crime is the use or targeting of a computer network (and the Internet) for criminal enterprise or offense
  • Cyber Crime is not new, and is constantly changing as criminals use advances in technology to commit new, more sophisticated crimes
  • Information is the only commodity that can be stolen without being taken
cyber crime today
Cyber Crime Today
  • Serious cyber criminals: more organized, more global, more sophisticated
  • Serious methods: Cyber Criminals can strike ANYONE, ANYWHERE, ANYTIME
  • Law enforcement needs more tools, training & resources, but there is also a need for greater public awareness and for education and training of specialists
cyber crime cyber security
Cyber Crime & Cyber Security
  • Cyber Crime is directly linked to cyber security;
  • Cyber security is directly linked to national security
  • The cyber threat is a dynamic and growing threat to security and spans many types of crimes (terrorist financing, money laundering, identity theft, etc.)
cyber crime as a global threat
Cyber Crime as a Global Threat
  • Cyber crime is rooted in globalization & the expansion of the networked Internet
  • Cyber crime has no borders or boundaries, and can attack many countries at once
  • Cyber crime has no limits: it can target anyone, anywhere, anytime
the center of gravity the computer
The Center of Gravity: The Computer
  • a computer can be the target of crime, attacked to damage or steal information from a computer or computer network
  • a computer can be a technique to commit crime, used for fraud or theft
  • a computer can be a tool to fight crime, by analyzing evidence (a “forensic footprint”)
the new cyber threat
The New Cyber Threat
  • The Internet is a critical, global infrastructure for economic, political and military power
  • Cyber technology creates new dependencies & interdependencies
  • Cyber technologies redefined security: physical attacks have cyber consequences and cyber attacks have physical consequences
implications for armenia
Implications for Armenia
  • Social/Political: credibility, efficacy & legitimacy of government efforts
  • Economic: consumer confidence & trust, investment climate
  • Military/Security: cyber war & cyberspace as the new battlefield; protecting critical infrastructure
social political implications
Social/Political Implications
  • Credibility & efficacy: combating cyber crime also bolsters state anti-corruption efforts
  • Legitimacy & trust: failure to confront cyber crime leads to a loss of confidence and erosion of trust in government
  • Global responsibility: fighting cyber crime is an essential global obligation
economic implications for armenia
Economic Implications for Armenia

Without adequate cyber security, several economic trends emerge:

  • consumer confidence & trust erodes
  • business reputations and the national business environment declines
  • foreign investment is reduced
  • global economic integration is hindered
  • economic development is impeded
military implications for armenia
Military Implications for Armenia

Cyber Space as a new battlefield

  • Adversaries are well aware of cyber warfare; new doctrine
  • Terrorists developing cyber capabilities
  • Military communications & critical infrastructure are vulnerable;

and prone to an over-reliance on existing civilian networks

critical infrastructure

Banking & financial services

Government services: E-Government

Energy networks & safety systems

Transportation- air safety & border security

Defense & security: data networks and communications

Critical Infrastructure
cyber challenges
Cyber Challenges
  • To see cyber security being as important as physical security
  • Recognition of the real threat environment
  • Understand that the threat is as diversified as the targets
  • The threat will change as rapidly as technology
cyber security goals
Cyber Security Goals
  • Need to raise public awareness of cyber security & safe, prudent use of Internet
  • Assess new cyber trends, threats & vulnerabilities
  • Incorporate lessons learned & international best practices
  • Develop counter measures & safeguards
  • Adopt and pursue comprehensive approach to cyber security
  • Cyber threats are real & growing
  • New technologies forge new vulnerabilities
  • New vulnerabilities foster new threats
  • As the nature of national security has changed, the response must also adapt
  • And the most important pipelines in this region transport neither oil nor gas…..they carry data, the most significant pipelines are fiber optic