A short history of the pc
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A Short History of the PC. Prolog. Before the IBM, there were many PC vendors. These were typically garage-shop start-ups with shaky financing. The big names were Radio Shack and Apple. Early personal computers were crude. CPUs were 8-bit, usually and 8080 or Z80.

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A Short History of the PC

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A Short History of the PC


Prolog

  • Before the IBM, there were many PC vendors.

    • These were typically garage-shop start-ups with shaky financing.

    • The big names were Radio Shack and Apple.

  • Early personal computers were crude.

    • CPUs were 8-bit, usually and 8080 or Z80.

    • Storage was usually on audio cassette tape as diskette drives were expensive.

    • Monitors were TV sets with a maximum of 64 characters per line.

    • Printers were very expensive and often were upper-case only.

    • The big applications were WordStar and VisiCalc.


IBM PC – 1981


1981 IBM PC Features

  • CPU – Intel 8088

    • 16-bit CPU, 8-bit I/O, 4.77 MHz clock

    • 8-bit Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) expansion bus.

    • 16 K to 64 K RAM (up to 640 K with a RAM expansion card)

  • ROM BASIC

  • Operating systems

    • PC-DOS ($40)

    • CP/M ($450)

    • UCSD p-System ($550)

  • $1265 (plus monitor, video controller, operating system, serial port, floppy disk, and printer)


1981 IBM PC Accessories

  • Displays

    • “High-resolution” character-only (80 per line) with a monochrome monitor.

    • Low-resolution graphics controller with a color display.

  • RAM cards were needed to expand memory beyond 64K.

  • Diskette drives held of 360 Kbytes.

  • Modems had speeds of 100 to 300 bps.

  • Printers used matrix-impact technology and ribbons.


IBM PC Open Architecture

  • IBM published its hardware interface specifications.

    • This allowed other companies to develop expansion cards, keyboards, mice, etc.

  • IBM decided that they would profit only from the hardware.

    • All software was developed by other companies.

  • IBM published its BIOS specifications.

    • As a result other companies reversed-engineered the BIOS, which allowed PC clones into the market.

  • IBM allowed Microsoft to sell DOS to others.


MS-DOS Screen


MS-DOS

  • The basic operating-system commands were in ROM so you could swap your program diskette with one containing data.

  • DOS contained few services. For example, an editor had to know how to control your printer.

  • Users had to configure peripherals (e.g., modems, ports, and printers) by editing control files, such as autoexec.bat and config.sys.

  • The simple software of the day easily fit on a360-K diskette.


IBM XT – 1983

  • CPU – Intel 8088

    • 16-bit processor, 8-bit I/O

    • 4.77 MHz clock

    • 8-bit ISA bus

    • 256 K or 640 K RAM in 36 DIP sockets

  • 360K, 5-¼” diskette (720K, 3-½” optional)

  • 10 or 20 Mbyte hard disk

  • $5000 (with a 10-MB disk)

  • Other manufacturers began to enter the PC market.


IBM AT – 1984

  • CPU – Intel 80286

    • 16-bit processor, 16-bit I/O

    • 6 or 8 MHz clock

    • 16-bit ISA bus

    • 512 K on motherboard, 16M maximum

  • 1.2M, 5-¼” diskette (1.44M, 3-½” optional)

  • 20 or 30 Mbyte hard disk

  • EGA graphics

  • $6000 with a 20 Mbyte disk


Hardware Milestones

  • 1982 – Compaq “Portable” (28 lbs., ac power)

  • 1984 – HP introduces the laser printer.

  • 1985 – 2400 bps modems become common;the 16-MHz 80386 appears.

  • 1986 – Compaq releases the first 80386 PC.

  • 1987 – VGA graphics (640480) appear.

  • 1990 – Intel introduces the 80486 with an integrated co-processor.

  • 1993 – The Intel Pentium debuts at 60 MHz;the PCI bus appears.


DOS Milestones

  • 1981 - DOS 1 (purchased from Seattle Computing for $50,000)

  • 1983 – DOS 2 (subdirectory and 10-MB hard disk support)

  • 1984 – DOS 3 (1.2-MB diskette and 32-MB hard disk support)

  • 1988 – DOS 4 (too buggy to be popular)

  • 1991 – DOS 5 (allowed the use of 640-1024K RAM and larger disks, added a disk cache and undelete)

  • 1993 – DOS 6 (disk compression and defragging, better memory management)


Windows 1.0 Screen


MS Windows Milestones

  • 1985 – Windows 1.0 (a DOS shell, crude and slow)

  • 1987 – Windows 2.0 (icons, overlapping windows)

  • 1990 – Windows 3.0 (16 colors, new file manager, the first successful version)

  • 1992 – Windows 3.1 (drag-and-drop, better integration)

  • 1995 – Windows 95 (long filenames, dial-up networking)

  • 1998 – Windows 98 (USB support, Internet Explorer 4 built- in)

  • 2001 – Windows XP (32-bit architecture, DOS independence)


Epilog


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