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Mobile Television: The Emergence of a Personal-Mass Media Platform Sylvia Chan-Olmsted Professor and Associate Dean for Research Department of Telecommunication College of Journalism and Communication An Emerging Main Stream Medium – everyone has it! HK: 130% Broadband Internet: 53%

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Mobile Television: The Emergence of a Personal-Mass Media Platform

Sylvia Chan-Olmsted

Professor and Associate Dean for Research

Department of Telecommunication

College of Journalism and Communication


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An Emerging Main Stream Medium – everyone has it!

HK: 130%

Broadband Internet: 53%

Cable TV: 70%


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An Emerging Main Stream Medium – not just a telephone!

Communication + Interacting with the phone


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Some U.S. Mobile Consumption Facts

  • Browsing news/information on mobile Internet is also a popular mobile activity.

  • Yahoo sites (email, IM, search, news, directory, weather, etc.) are most popular in mobile usage (14.1 million), followed by Google sites (8.2 million)

  • Top three mobile news sites are CNN/cnn.com, Yahoo, and ESPN Sports News.

The importance of familiar media content and brands


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I want my mobile phone…

Traditional media on a new platform

SMS

MMS

IM

Television

High quality audio

Banking

Bill payment

Shopping

Broadband Internet

Email

Gaming

GPS


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Presentation Outline

  • Background Information

    • Continuous demand for TV consumption

    • Mobile Development Worldwide

  • The Characteristics of Mobile TV

  • Mobile TV Technology

  • Characteristics of Mobile TV Consumers

  • Mobile TV Consumption Patterns and Drivers

  • Mobile TV Content Issues

  • Mobile TV Regulatory Issues

  • Mobile TV Business Considerations


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Television vs. Mobile Television – Traditional TV Overview

  • TV continues to be an important medium for the Americans

    • 8 hours 11 minutes per day for an household

    • 4 hours 31 minutes per day for an adult male

    • 5 hours 17 minutes per day for an adult female

    • 3 hours 19 minutes per day for teens/children

  • Access to multiple TV sets on the rise

    • 82.5% of households have multiple TV sets

    • 3.17 sets per household


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The Worldwide Growth of a New Content Delivery Platform

  • Americans began to receive broadcast TV on mobile phones in early 2007

  • Vodafone Germany delivered Tour De France live in 2006

  • TU Media Korea has multiple mobile TV services since 2005. One in seven Koreans watch TV on their mobile phones.

  • 44 million mobile TV users globally by the end of 2005– Asia takes the lead (70% in Asia)

  • Europe and North America are expected to grow substantially


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Mobile TV Viewers Worldwide

VAS Research Series 2007


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Traditional Over-the-air Broadcast Television

Multi-channel Analog Television

Satellite

Cable

Fixed-Line Digital High Definition Television

Cable

Satellite

Broadband (IPTV)

Mobile Television

Point-to-Point (3G Cellular networks)

Broadcast (DMB, DVB-H, and MediaFLO)

Continuous, Complementary Viewing Experience

Television vs. Mobile Television – The Nature of Mobile TV

  • Conceptual Mobile TV = Mobile phone + TV + Internet

  • Conceptual Mobile TV = TV with Mobility and Interactivity

    Mobile TV in the Context of TV Evolution


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Content multiplicity

Boredom relief

Information

Entertainment

More passive consumption

Fixed-line Television

Interpersonal communication

Interactivity

Personalization

Control

Community

Information

Content multiplicity

Broadband

Internet

Fixed-line Telephone

Mobile Telephone

Mobile Television

Mobility

Immediacy

Emotional attachment

Personalization

Interactivity

Privacy

Intimacy

The Characteristics of Mobile TV


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Mobile TV Development Issue I: Technology

  • Choice of Mobile TV platform is influenced by cost, regulation, and applications planned.


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Mobile TV Development Issue II: Consumer

Who are the mobile TV users?

  • Early adopter profile

  • Young males (65% male, 64% ages 20-30 in Korea)

  • Urban mobile customers (82% in urban areas in Korea)

  • Ethnically diverse in the U.S.

  • Young adults who like texting, streaming, podcasting, and other technologies

  • Prior multimedia experience (esp. for mobile video), equipment, and age influence receptivity of mobile TV


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U.S. Mobile TV Consumers

Mobile TV users

are ethnically

diverse

Not just for the

very young;

over half are

In the age

group 18-36

Skewed

toward

male

Telephia Mobile Video Diary Report 2006


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Mobile TV Development Issue II: Consumption Patterns

  • Mobile TV was most used during commutes, waiting situations, and work/school breaks.

    • In the United States: Home (22%), commuting (22%), shopping (16%), and work (14%)

  • Mobile TV prime time is between noon and 8 pm and during weekdays.

  • Mobile TV consumption time is increasing from short 5 minute snacking to up to 30 minutes.

  • Gradual increase of consumption time and number of locations (increasing home access)


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U.S. Mobile TV Usage by Daypart

Telephia Mobile Video Diary Report 2006


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U.S. Mobile Video Usage

Small

portion

of mobile

Users;

Infrequent

usage


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Mobile TV Development Issue II: Consumption Patterns/Motivations

Motivations

  • Flexibility, independence, and a sense of community

  • Enhanced personal and intimate viewing experience

  • Time and location-sensitive information

  • Filling empty time

  • Personal content creation


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Mobile TV Development Issue II: Consumption Patterns/Motivations

Conditions for mobile television adoption

  • Affordable pricing

  • Good technical functionality

  • Simple and intuitive usability

  • High-quality pictures and sounds

  • Mobile device functions uncompromised by TV applications

  • Suitable content for mobile viewing

  • “Brand” (familiarity) is important during the initial stage of adoption.


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U.S. Mobile Subscribers’ Key Motivators in Subscribing to Mobile TV Service

  • Cost of service (64%)

  • Available channels (52%)

  • Picture quality (49%)

  • Screen size (47%)

  • Channel reception (46%)

  • Sound quality (39%)

  • Ease of use (36%)

  • Security (21%)

    2007 ComScore Survey


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Mobile TV Development Issue III: Content

Technology = enabler

Content = driver

Content Types

  • Repurposed Video (full-lengths and recaps/previews/highlights)

    • On demand or scheduled rebroadcast

  • Simulcast TV (Live broadcast)

  • User-generated video

  • Original made-for-mobile video

  • Familiarity is important as this stage so repurposed content is preferred (the brand factor!)


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Mobile TV Development Issue III: Content

Sample services:

  • US Verizon offers 8 channels (CBS, Comedy Central, ESPN, Fox, MTV, NBC News, NBC Entertainment, and Nickelodeon); Vcast mobile video (streaming video clips).

  • MobiTV on AT&T – 50+ channels (streaming video clips such as ABC News, Access Hollywood, TLC, Discovery, Animal Planet, etc.).

  • Orange France – 51 channels; Orange UK – 16 channels; Vodafone Germany – 30 channels; Italy – 15 channels.


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Mobile TV Development Issue III: Content

  • Typical content genres are drama, soaps, news, sports, and reality programs

  • Highly-rated dramas/soaps are popular in Korea

  • Reality mobile programs are popular in Europe

  • News, weather, children/cartoon, comedy, and sports are popular in the US.

  • New mobile content considerations: no need for details; use of a simple plot


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U.S. On-Demand Mobile TV Usage

Short clips -

Music, news,

Sports,

Weather,

Comedy,

Animations,

Highlights


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Mobile TV Channels Ranked by Share of Total Audience

Telephia Mobile TV Diary Report 2006


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U.S. Mobile TV Content Preferences

  • Consumers prefer to watch traditional-style mobile TV rather than modified or specialized content (i.e., full-length and general content)

  • Consumers prefer local news, dramas, movies, and sitcoms.

    2007 ComScore Survey


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Mobile TV Development Issue III: Content

  • Two mobile TV views: mobisodes (“24” and “Lost”) vs. mobile traditional TV (repurposing regular TV)

  • Mobile TV production considerations: limited time length, plots, themes, props, and people

  • Access to traditional broadcast content a critical key to mobile TV content development (cases in Korea and Italy)

  • Incorporating user-generated content (H3G in Italy, YouTube and Vcast)

  • From “m”obile company to “m”edia company (UK’s “3” mobile company)


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Mobile TV Development Issues IV - Regulation

  • How to regulate converging telephone/television industries?

  • Should mobile TV be regulated under the same framework as traditional broadcast TV?

  • What about content rights of mobile contents? E.g., retransmitted broadcast signals (Is the broadcast right of a content product transferable disregard of the reception device)

  • And the key question of today: the unbundling, open access of mobile platform

    • Google’s bid of the newly available radio frequencies

    • Verizon’s announcement to open its network

  • Open access is likely to lead to more innovative applications


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Television Broadcasters

Media Portal

Mobile

Content

Packagers/

Aggregators

Mobile

Network

Operators

(Operator Portal)

Mobile

Users

Mobile

Content producers

Mobile Device Manufacturers

Mobile TV Development Issues V – Alliances and Marketing

  • Alliances are essential for emerging markets – especially with content producers (e.g., TIM & News Corp.; Vodafone & Mediaset)

  • Marketing is important for affecting new consumption/behavior (brand recognition and familiarity); cross-promotion on multiple platforms


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Mobile TV Development Issues V – Business Models

  • Mobile has been more successful in establishing the receptivity toward consumers’ paying for content – ability to experiment with different business models.

  • Often begin with short-term free trials

  • 3G network pricing models (event or sub based):

    • Free content but charge by data packet rate (unsuitable for premium contents)

    • Content charge only (RPM problem)

    • Content charge plus data-packet rate (confusing to consumer)

    • Fixed subscription fee (more for frequent, repeated access)

    • Bundled package pricing (strategic bundling value)

  • People prefer packages rather than pay per view (not good for premium contents)

  • Issues for the new broadcast platform:

    • Optimal pricing points for branded vs. unbranded and original vs. repurposed content

    • Price a content that is free on other platforms


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Mobile TV Development Issues V –Business Models

  • Content providers need incentives (revenue-sharing) to develop/assemble content products.

  • Revenue Sharing Models:

    • Upfront fixed-cost payment vs. revenue sharing percentage to channel members

    • Japan’s DoCoMo keeps 12%; Italy’s H3G keeps 85% of the revenues

    • Percentage to content providers influence availability of good content products


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Mobile TV Development Issues V –Business Models

  • Mobile Advertising – targeted medium platform with mobility, personalization, and interactivity.


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Ad Budget Shares of Emerging Media

AAF Nov. 2006


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Mobile TV Development Issues V –Business Models

  • Mobile Advertising Scenario:

    • SMS/MMS type ads

    • Multimedia placement ads with/without reduced subscription rate for commercial breaks on mobile TV

    • Use product placement or sponsorship

  • Challenges

    • Contextual targeting with personalized and relevant content is critical

    • Lack of audience measurement data

    • Consumers have low tolerance of mobile TV commercials

    • More than half of consumers are not willing to watch ads on their phones in return for free mobile applications


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Mobile Advertising Spending

E.g., SMS

E.g., placement ads


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Overall Mobile Business Considerations

State of the Business

  • Messaging (text, multimedia and instant messaging, and email) generates the largest revenue ($5.9 billion in 2007; projected to reach $15 billion in 2010).

  • Entertainment and information contents generate similar levels of revenues now, but entertainment is expected to outpace information revenues.

  • Package of mobile TV, high quality audio, and data services might be most attractive.


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U.S. Mobile Phone Application Revenues


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Mobile TV Development Issues V –Business Considerations

  • Mobile TV is a long-term strategy.

  • It provides broadcasters opportunities for personalization and targeting, not necessarily revenue potentials.

  • It offers opportunities for recuperating 3G license fees (e.g., European operators).

  • Its strategic value is in integrated services and triple- to quadruple-play competition


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Fixed-Line Telephone

Broadband Internet

Mobile Telephone

Fixed-Line Television

Cox Communications and Comcast

(VoIP, Cable Modem, and Cable Television

MVNO (Sprint)

Bidding on the new UHF mobile freq.

Verizon and AT&T Cingular

Voice Telephone, DSL, IPTV, and Mobile Phone

Mobile TV Development Issues V – Quadruple-Play Business Strategy


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Conclusions

  • U.S. Mobile TV is in its infancy, worldwide mobile development may serve as a reference point.

  • Mobile TV is a convergence between telephone and television – There are fundamental differences in consumer expectations and behavior.

  • Converging industries present challenging technological, business, and regulatory issues (e.g., changing consumer demand/usage patterns, product development, cross-platform, unbundling practices, and emerging, risky business models).

  • Mobile TV = diverse needs + content familiarity

  • Mobile platform is a crucial part of the multilateral competition between media/telecom firms.

  • Mobile TV is complementary to fixed TV and offers unique marketing utilities for traditional media content.

  • The recent move toward open access means more innovative applications so get ready for the ride.


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