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Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development. Motor DevelopmentSensory and Perceptual DevelopmentPerceptual-Motor Coupling. Dynamic Systems View. Seeks to explain how motor behaviors are assembled for perceiving and actingMotivation leads to new motor behavior; a convergence of Nervous system de

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2. Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development Motor Development Sensory and Perceptual Development Perceptual-Motor Coupling

3. Dynamic Systems View Seeks to explain how motor behaviors are assembled for perceiving and acting Motivation leads to new motor behavior; a convergence of Nervous system development Body’s physical properties Child’s motivation to reach goal Environmental support for the skill

4. Sample Reflexes

5. Gross Motor Skills Motor skills that involve large-muscle activities Infancy Development of posture Locomotion and crawling Learning to walk No set sequence of development; help of caregivers important more skilled and mobile in second year

6. Milestones in Gross Motor Development

7. Gross Motor Skills Childhood Improved walking, running, jumping, climbing, learn organized sports’ skills Positive and negative sport outcomes Adolescence - Skills continue to improve Adulthood Peak performance of most sports before 30 Biological functions decline with age

8. Guidelines for Parents and Coaches of Children in Sports

9. Movement and Aging

10. Fine Motor Skills Involves more finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity Infancy: Reaching and grasping Size and shape of object matters Experience affects perceptions and vision Early Childhood: Pick up small objects Some difficulty building towers Age 5: hand, arm, fingers move together

11. Fine Motor Skills Childhood and adolescence Writing and drawing skills emerge, improve Steadier at age 7; more precise movements By 10-12, can do quality crafts, master difficult piece on musical instrument Adulthood — speed may decline in middle and late adulthood, but most use compensation strategies Older adults can still learn new motor tasks

12. Origin and Development of Handedness Genetic inheritance Right-handedness dominant in all cultures Right hand preference in thumb-sucking begins in the womb Head-turning preference in newborns Preference later leads to handedness

13. Handedness and Other Characteristics 85 to 95 percent of right-handed primarily process speech in left hemisphere Left handed Are more likely to have reading problems Show more variation Have better spatial skills More common among mathematicians, musicians, artists, and architects

14. What Are Sensation and Perception? Sensation — occurs when information contacts sensory receptors Perception — interpretation of sensation

15. The Ecological View People directly perceive information in the world around them Perception brings people in contact with the environment to interact with it and adapt to it All objects have affordances; opportunities for interaction offered by objects necessary to perform activities

16. Studying Infant Perception Visual preference method — to determine if infants can distinguish between various stimuli Habituation and Dishabituation Habituation — decreased responsiveness to stimulus Dishabituation — recovery of habituated response Tracking — moving eyes and/or head to follow moving objects Videotape equipment, high-speed computers

17. Infants’ Visual Perception

18. Perceptual Constancy

19. Vision in Childhood Improved color detection, visual expectations, controlling eye movements (for reading) Preschoolers may be farsighted Signs of vision problems Rubbing eyes, blinking, squinting Irritability at games requiring distance vision Closing one eye, tilting head to see, thrusting head forward to see

20. Aging Vision In Adulthood Loss of Accommodation — presbyopia Decreased blood supply to eye — smaller visual field, increased blind spot Slower dark adaptation Declining color vision: greens, blues, violets Declining depth perception — problems with steps or curbs

21. Glare Vision and Aging

22. Diseases of the Eye Cataracts — thickening eye lens that causes vision to become cloudy, opaque, distorted Glaucoma — damage to optic nerve because of pressure created by buildup of fluid in eye Macular degeneration — involves deterioration of retina

23. Hearing

24. Hearing

25. Hearing

26. Other Senses

27. Intermodal Perception Ability to relate and integrate information about two or more sensory modalities, such as vision and hearing Exists in newborns

28. The End

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