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Consonants and vowels. John Goldsmith . Kinds of phonetics . Transcribing: descriptive phonetics? transcriptional phonetics? No standard name. Articulatory phonetics Acoustic phonetics Perceptual phonetics (Psychology) Computational phonetics (CS). Articulatory apparatus.

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Consonants and vowels

Consonants and vowels

John Goldsmith


Kinds of phonetics
Kinds of phonetics

  • Transcribing: descriptive phonetics? transcriptional phonetics? No standard name.

  • Articulatory phonetics

  • Acoustic phonetics

  • Perceptual phonetics (Psychology)

  • Computational phonetics (CS)



Some not so happy assumptions generally made to do transcriptions
Some (not so happy) assumptions generally made to do transcriptions

  • There is a (1-dimensional) sequence of units that define or characterize the utterance – rather than 2 or more parallel streams. We think of the articulators as being a single instrument rather than as an orchestra.

  • We can slice the utterances into pieces vertically, in time, and ignore most differences in duration.

  • Sounds follow one another, and that’s it: there is no packing of them into groups.


Sounds of english
Sounds of English transcriptions

Consonants: first, the stops:

  • b as in bat, sob, cubby

  • d as in date, hid, ado

  • g as in gas, lag, ragged

  • p as in pet, tap, repeat

  • t as in tap, pet, attack

  • k as in king, pick, picking

When we need to emphasize

that we are using a phonetic

transcription, we put square

brackets [b] around the symbols.


More consonants fricatives
More consonants: fricatives transcriptions

  • f as in fail, life

  • v as in veil, live

  • Ɵ as in thin, wrath

  • ð as in this, bathe

  • s as in soft, miss

  • z as in zoo, as

  • š (American) or ʃ (IPA) as in shame, mash

  • ž (American) or ǯ (IPA)as in triage, garage, azure,

  • h as in help, vehicular


Affricates
affricates transcriptions

  • č (American) or tʃ (IPA) as in cheap, hatch

  • ǰ (American) or ʤ(IPA) as in jump, hedge


Nasal consonants
nasal consonants transcriptions

  • m as in map, him

  • n as in knot, tin (alveolar POA)

  • ñ as in canyon

  • ŋ as in sing, gingham, dinghy


Liquids
Liquids transcriptions

  • l as in large, gull

  • r as in red, jar


Glides and semi consonants
glides and semi-consonants transcriptions

  • y (American) or j (IPA) as in boy, yellow

  • w as in wall, cow


  • 6 stops transcriptions

  • 2 affricates

  • 9 fricatives

  • 4 nasals

  • 2 liquids

  • 2 glides


Short vowels

Front: transcriptions

I as in bit

Ɛ as in bet

æ as in bat

Back

as in put

ʌ as in putt

 as in bought

a or ɑ as in Mott, ma, spot

ǝ “schwa” as in about

Short vowels


Long vowels
Long vowels transcriptions

  • iy or i as in beet

  • ey or ej as in bait

  • ay as in bite

  • oy as in boy

  • uw or u as in boot

  • ow as in boat

  • aw as how


Review where we ve been
Review where we’ve been transcriptions

  • We’ve listened to the sounds of “our” English, and assigned a set of symbols to them.

  • We abstracted away from pitch, loudness, and duration.

  • We hope to better understanding our language’s sounds by analyzing them as being composed of a sequence of identifiable sounds, each of which occurs frequently in words of the language.


  • Frequently? If a sound occurs in just 2 or 3 words, we don’t take it seriously (glottal stop, velar fricative)

  • We do this against the background knowledge that the inventory of sounds in English is not necessary as human languages go: they are what they are against a much wider backdrop of possible linguistic sounds.


  • We also attempt to physically characterize these sounds: don’t take it seriously (glottal stop, velar fricative)acoustically and articulatorily. Consonants are easier to characterize articulatorily, vowels acoustically.

  • We are particularly interested in those ways in which the English of Speaker 1 is different from the English of Speaker 2: again, working against the background knowledge of variation.


  • We also characterize differences of sounds across sound contexts: we say, notice the different sound that occurs in front of a voiceless consonant in height.

  • Looking ahead to phonology, we will attempt to get a handle on variation in sounds in two ways:

    • Two sounds are similar if (roughly) we can characterize one of them as a variant of the other used in a particular context (“under the influence of that context,” so to speak)

    • Two sounds are distinct (hence, different) if two distinct words differ only with regard to these two sounds, in otherwise identical positions



Symbols
Symbols language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen.

  • We assign symbols to these sounds; in addition, we want to characterize them as best we can articulatorily and acoustically.

    Sounds can be divided into two major groups, consonants and vowels; or set along a continuum known as the sonority hierarchy:


Sonority hierarchy
Sonority hierarchy language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen.

  • Vowels

  • Glides

  • Liquids

  • Nasals

  • Obstruents:

    • Fricatives

    • Affricates

    • Stops


Consonants
Consonants language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen.

  • Consonants = obstruents + sonorants

    • Obstruents: (oral) stops, affricates, and fricatives

    • Sonorants: nasals and liquids (l,r)


Consonants have a point of articulation
Consonants have a point of articulation language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen.

The crucial points of articulation for English consonants are:

  • Labial

  • Labio-dental

  • Dental

  • Alveolar: at the alveolar ridge, behind the teeth

  • Post-alveolar/palato-alveolar/alveopalatal: multiple names for the same thing

  • Retroflex (r only)

  • Palatal (y, ñ)

  • Velar

  • Laryngeal


Obstruents: language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen.

  • 6 stops

  • 9 fricatives

  • 2 affricates

  • Nasals (4)

  • 2 other sonorants (what are they?)

  • 2 glides


Vowels
Vowels language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen.

  • Vowels are harder to characterize articulatorily, but we try!

  • The fact that it’s harder is reflected in the fact that there is more than one way in which it’s done. IPA is one way; American is another.


IPA language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen.


Two systems side by side
Two systems side by side language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen.


A phonetic chart based on the first two formants
A phonetic chart based on the first two formants language, knowing that that language chose one set of sounds when a vast range of other possibilities might have been chosen.


From: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/music/vocres.html


/i/ http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/music/vocres.htmlgreen

/ae/ hat

/u/ boot

graphics thanks to

Kevin Russell, Univ of Manitoba


“Hi” /haj/ http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/music/vocres.html

FORMANTS

we were away a year ago


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