Chapter 26 Advanced machining processes and Nanofabrication Introduction Chemical machining Electro chemical machining Electrical discharge machining Wire EDM Laser beam machining Electron-beam machining and plasma-arc cutting Water-jet machining Abrasive-jet machining
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processes and Nanofabrication
Situations where processes are not satisfactory, economical or even possible
Fig : Examples of parts made by advanced machining processes. These parts are made by advanced machining processes and would be difficult or uneconomical to manufacture by conventional processes. (a) Cutting sheet metal with a laser beam.(b) Microscopic gear with a diameter on the order of 100µm, made by a special etching process.
Chemical attacks metals and etch them by removing small amounts of material from the surface using reagents or etchants
Fig : (a) Missile skin-panel section contoured by chemical milling to improve the stiffness-to weight ratio of the part. (b) Weight reduction of space launch vehicles by chemical milling aluminum-alloy plates. These panels are chemically milled after the plates have first been formed into shape by processes such as roll forming or stretch forming. The design of the chemically machined rib patterns can be modified readily at minimal cost.
Chemical milling or even possible:
Procedure for chemical milling Steps :
1 – Residual stresses should relieved in order to prevent warping
2 – Surfaces to be thoroughly degreased and cleaned
3 - Masking material(tapes,paints,elastomers & plastics ) is applied
4 – masking is peeled off by scribe and peel technique
5 – The exposed surfaces are etched with etchants
6 – After machining the parts to be thoroughly washed to prevent further reactions with residue etchant
7 – rest of the masking material is removed and the part is cleaned and inspected
8 – additional finishing operations are performed on chemically milled parts
9 – this sequence is repeated to produce stepped cavities and various contours
Process capabilities: or even possible
Fig : (a) Schematic illustration of the chemical machining process. Note that no forces or machine tools are involved in this process. (b) Stages in producing a profiled cavity by machining; not the undercut.
Photochemical blanking : or even possible
Fig : Schematic illustration of the electrochemical-machining process. This process is the reverse of electroplating.
Fig : Typical parts made by electrochemical machining. (a) Turbine blade made of a nickel alloy, 360 HB; note the shape of the electrode on the right. (b) Thin slots on a 4340-steel roller-bearing cage. (c) Integral airfoils on a compressor disk.
Fig : (a) Two total knee replacement systems showing metal implants (top pieces) with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene insert (bottom pieces) (b) Cross-section of the ECM process as applied to the metal implant.
Design considerations for Electrochemical Machining or even possible
Pulsed electro chemical machining(PECM)
Electrochemical Grinding or even possible
Combines electrochemical machining with conventional grinding
Fig : Schematic illustration of the electrochemical – grinding process. (b) Thin slot produced on a round nickel – alloy tube by this process.
(a) (b) (c)
Fig : (a) Schematic illustration of the electrical-discharge machining process. This is one of the most widely used machining processes, particularly for die-sinking operations. (b) Examples of cavities produced by the electrical-discharge machining process, using shaped electrodes. Two round parts (rear) are the set of dies for extruding the aluminum the aluminum piece shown in front. (c) A spiral cavity produced by ECM using a slowly rotating electrode, similar to a screw thread.
Fig : Stepped cavities produced with a square electrode by the EDM process. The workpiece moves in the two principal horizontal directions (x-y), and its motion is synchronized with the downward movement of the electrode to produce these cavities. Also shown is a round electrode capable of producing round or elliptical cavities.
Fig : Schematic illustration of producing an inner cavity by EDM, using a specially designed electrode with a hinged tip, which is slowly opened and rotated to produce the large cavity.
Fig : (a) Schematic illustration of the wire EDM process. As much as 50 hours of machining can be performed with one reel of wire, which is then discarded. (b) Cutting a thick plate with wire EDM. (c) A computer-controlled wire EDM machine.
Fig : (a) Schematic illustration of the laser-beam machining process. (b) and (c) Examples of holes produced in nonmetallic parts by LBM.
Fig : Schematic illustration of the electron-beam machining process. Unlike LBM, this process requires a vacuum, so workpiece size is limited to the size is limited to the size of the vacuum chamber.
Fig : (a) Schematic illustration of water-jet machining. (b) A computer-controlled, water-jet cutting machine cutting a granite plate. (c) Example of various nonmetallic parts produced by the water-jet cutting process.
Fig : Schematic illustration of Abrasive Jet Machining
Fig : (a) A scanning electron microscope view of a diamond-tipped (triangular piece at the right) cantilever used with the atomic force microscope. The diamond tip is attached to the end of the cantilever with an adhesive. (b) Scratches produced on a surface by the diamond tip under different forces. Note the extremely small size of the scratches.