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What Are They Thinking? Addressing Risk Factors with Offenders. OVERVIEW AND EXPECTATIONS. Training Objectives. Present and discuss components of Thinking for a Change (T4C) Provide research that supports T4C Explain how techniques can be used in daily interactions with offenders
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Choice to Change
Thoughts and Feelings
Beliefs and Attitudes)
1. Anti-social/Pro-criminal attitudes, values, beliefs and cognitive-emotional states
2. Pro-criminal associates and isolation from anti-criminal others
3. Temperamental and personality factors conducive to criminal activity including:
4. A history of antisocial behavior
- Evident from a young age
- In a variety of settings
- Involving a number and variety of different acts
5. Familial factors that include criminality and a variety of psychological problems in the family of origin including:
- Low levels of affection,caring and cohesiveness
- Poor parental supervision and discipline practices
- Outright neglect and abuse
6. Low levels of personal education, vocational or financial achievement
* Conning/Manipulation *Poor Use of Leisure Time
* Impulsivity *Affiliation w/Criminals
* Low frustration Tolerance *Boredom/Dissatisfaction
* Danger/Thrill Seeking *Drug Abuse History
*Poor Consequential Thinking *Poor Family Relations
*Poor Option Generation *Conflicted Spousal Relation
*Alienation from Mainstream *Conflicts with Authority
Socialization *Conflicts with Peers
*Neutralization/Non Empathy *Poverty of Social Skills
*Externalization/Blaming *Poor Recognition of Patterned
*Hostility/Resistance Toward Work Responses
*Attachment to Criminal Activities
Service to Others
Loss of Control
33% fewer offenders committed new offenses
Significantly improved problem solving skills
Significantly higher # of technical violations
Predicted by problem solving skills
Situation: I was in trouble for being out of the area.
1. I know if I do these things I will be going back to jail.
2. It’s really starting to get to me.
3. I feel locked up in my own apartment
4. I really resent this.
5. I shouldn’t have to follow these rules.
6. Maybe it would be better to just go back to jail and get my sentence over with.
7. I feel like I am not in charge of my life anymore.
8. I can’t stand it.
Feelings: Uncomfortable, angry, controlled, threatened
Beliefs: Nobody has the right to control my life
If I let them do this to me I am a nobody.
the main character’s situation.
Include the following:
Step 1: State the violation or rule-breaking behavior to the offender.
Step 2: Have the offender describe circumstances leading to the violation or rule-breaking behavior
Step 3: Have the offender identify the thoughts and feelings leading to the behavior
Step 4: Have the offender identify one specific risk or trigger thought
Step 5: Have the offender identify one specific replacement thought
Step 6: Contract with the offender to use the replacement thought in future situations
A. Negative behavior pattern
B. Significant contributing factors
C. Negative consequences
2. Behavior objectives
A. Positive behavior
B. Time frame
C. Positive payoff for client
3. Action plan
A. Task or activity
B. Time frame
C. Officer participation/revisions
Step 1: Have the offender describe the problem and analyze the situation including:
Facts about the problem/situation
Others’ Thoughts and Feelings (those who might be involved and or affected by the problem)
Offender’s Opinions and Beliefs about the problem/situation
Step 2: Have the offender identify a goal regarding the problem/situation using one of the following formulas:
I want __________________________________. OR
I want ______________ but I don’t want ____________.
Step 4: Have the offender examine the choices and select the option that will increase the likelihood of achieving the identified goal.
Step 5: Develop an action plan with the offender that will allow the offender to implement the chosen choice.Who will be involved? When will the plan be implemented? Where will the plan be implemented? What will be done?
Step 6: Contract with the offender to implement the action plan
Step 7: Evaluate the action plan at the next report
1. Address risk factors.
2. Avoid power struggles.
3. Assists in effective documentation.
4. Allow a meaningful opportunity to change.