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What Are They Thinking? Addressing Risk Factors with Offenders. OVERVIEW AND EXPECTATIONS. Training Objectives. Present and discuss components of Thinking for a Change (T4C) Provide research that supports T4C Explain how techniques can be used in daily interactions with offenders

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What are they thinking addressing risk factors with offenders
What Are They Thinking?Addressing RiskFactors with Offenders



Training objectives
Training Objectives

  • Present and discuss components of Thinking for a Change (T4C)

  • Provide research that supports T4C

  • Explain how techniques can be used in daily interactions with offenders

  • Demonstrate techniques

  • Participants practice techniques


Officer s role in offender supervision
Officer’s role in Offender Supervision

  • Protect society

  • Provide an atmosphere and opportunities to bring about or support positive changes in the offender.


One voice one message
One Voice One Message

Offender

Choice to Change

Accountability

Rules

Meaningful Opportunity

to Change

Security

Treatment


The principles of cognitive interventions
The Principles of Cognitive Interventions

  • Self-awareness and Self-responsibility motivates self-change

  • The development of internal control

  • Risk Management

  • Relapse prevention


The principles of cognitive interventions1
The Principles of Cognitive Interventions

  • Objectivity/non judgmental

  • Choice

  • Non-coercive use of authority

  • Thinking drives behavior

  • “Their Eyes”/ “Their Speed”



Behavior

Thoughts and Feelings

Physical Sensations

Cognitive Structure

(Thinking Patterns

Beliefs and Attitudes)


Cognitive restructuring
COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING

  • 1960’s –Cognitive Behavioral Theory

  • 1970’s –Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)

  • 1970’s –Criminal Thinking Errors

  • 1980’s –Cognitive Self Change and “Thinking Reports”

  • 1980’s – “Reasoning and Rehabilitation”


Cognitive skills
COGNITIVE SKILLS

  • 1960’s –Social Learning Theory

  • 1970’s –Anger Management

  • 1980’s –Aggression Replacement Training

  • 1990’s –Problem Solving


Major set of risk need factors
Major Set of Risk/Need Factors

1. Anti-social/Pro-criminal attitudes, values, beliefs and cognitive-emotional states

2. Pro-criminal associates and isolation from anti-criminal others

3. Temperamental and personality factors conducive to criminal activity including:

  • Psychopathy

  • Weak Socialization

  • Impulsivity

  • Restless/aggressive energy

  • Egocentrism

  • Below average verbal intelligence

  • A taste for risk

  • Weak problem-solving/self-regulation skills


Major set of risk need factors1
Major Set of Risk/NeedFactors

4. A history of antisocial behavior

- Evident from a young age

- In a variety of settings

- Involving a number and variety of different acts

5. Familial factors that include criminality and a variety of psychological problems in the family of origin including:

- Low levels of affection,caring and cohesiveness

- Poor parental supervision and discipline practices

- Outright neglect and abuse

6. Low levels of personal education, vocational or financial achievement


Dynamic criminogenic risk
Dynamic Criminogenic Risk

* Conning/Manipulation *Poor Use of Leisure Time

* Impulsivity *Affiliation w/Criminals

* Low frustration Tolerance *Boredom/Dissatisfaction

* Danger/Thrill Seeking *Drug Abuse History

*Poor Consequential Thinking *Poor Family Relations

*Poor Option Generation *Conflicted Spousal Relation

*Alienation from Mainstream *Conflicts with Authority

Socialization *Conflicts with Peers

*Egocentrism *Instability/Excitability

*Neutralization/Non Empathy *Poverty of Social Skills

*Externalization/Blaming *Poor Recognition of Patterned

*Hostility/Resistance Toward Work Responses

*Attachment to Criminal Activities


Criminal continuum crime anything that infringes on the rights dignity or property of another
CRIMINAL CONTINUUMCRIME - Anything that infringes on the rights, dignity, or property of another.

No Errors

No Crime

Total Errors

Total Crime

Minimal

Occasional

Habitual

Continuous

Responsible

Self-adjusting

Irresponsible

Maladjusting

Serious Crime

Unarrestable

Petty Crime

Rape

Murder

Robbery

Lying, Cheating

Broken Promises

Traffic Tickets

DUI

Petit Theft

Other-Centered

Values

Family

Friends

Service to Others

Community

Job

Self Centered

Values

Looking Good

Feeling Good

Power

Control

Boundary

Loss of Control

Legal Consequences

Social Mores

Moral/Ethical Principles


Learning the rewards of criminal thinking
Learning the Rewards of Criminal Thinking

Look Good

Feel Good

Power

Self-

Centered

Thinking

Be Right

Control

Reinforcement

WIN

LOSE

Belittle,

Threaten

Power

Struggle

Detection,

Punishment

Crime,

Irresponsibility,

Violence

License

(Entitlement)

Victim Stance

Righteous Anger



National institute of corrections nic
National Institute of Corrections (NIC)

  • Small agency under the Department of Justice

  • Founded in mid-seventies following the Attica Prison riots

  • GOAL: to develop corrections knowledge, coordinate research, formulate policy and provide training

  • Includes jail, prisons, and community corrections


Thinking for a change t4c
Thinking For A Change (T4C)

  • Cognitive-behavioral program developed by experts for NIC in the 1990’s

  • Addresses criminal behavior via three components:

    • Cognitive Restructuring

    • Problem Solving

    • Social Skills

  • Based on the “What Works” literature


What works background
“What Works” Background

  • Martinson, a criminologist, performed a meta-analysis of over 800 published corrections programs from the 1970’s.

  • Martinson concluded that “Nothing Works” – programs provided to offenders in the correctional system were not found to be effective in reducing criminal behavior or recidivism.

  • Ted Palmer, another criminologist, replicated Martinson’s study.


What works background1
“What Works” Background

  • Palmer concluded that some interventions do work with specific populations when a targeted outcome was identified.

  • NIC created the “What Works” project based on the reanalysis.


Effectiveness of thinking for a change golden gatchel cahill 2002
Effectiveness of Thinking for a Change(Golden, Gatchel, & Cahill 2002)

Group Completers:

33% fewer offenders committed new offenses

Significantly improved problem solving skills

Group Dropouts:

Significantly higher # of technical violations

Technical Violations:

Predicted by problem solving skills


Technique a thinking check in
Technique A: Thinking Check-In


Cognitive self change
Cognitive Self Change

  • Pay attention to our thoughts and feelings.

  • Recognize when there is risk of our thoughts and feelings leading us into trouble.

  • Use new thinking that reduces that risk.


Thinking reports
Thinking Reports

  • A brief, objective description of the situation.

  • A list of all the thoughts you had in that situation.

  • A list of all the feelings you had in that situation.

  • Beliefs behind your thoughts and feelings.


Thinking report
Thinking Report

Situation:__________________________

Thoughts: ___________________________

1. _______________________________

2. ________________________________

3. _________________________________

4. ________________________________

Feelings: ___________________________

Beliefs: _____________________________


Sample thinking report
SAMPLE THINKING REPORT

Situation: I was in trouble for being out of the area.

Thoughts:

1. I know if I do these things I will be going back to jail.

2. It’s really starting to get to me.

3. I feel locked up in my own apartment

4. I really resent this.

5. I shouldn’t have to follow these rules.

6. Maybe it would be better to just go back to jail and get my sentence over with.

7. I feel like I am not in charge of my life anymore.

8. I can’t stand it.

Feelings: Uncomfortable, angry, controlled, threatened

Beliefs: Nobody has the right to control my life

If I let them do this to me I am a nobody.


Directions for observing video
DIRECTIONS FOR OBSERVING VIDEO

  • Observe the main character’s actions.

  • Write a “thinking report” based upon

    the main character’s situation.

    Include the following:

    • Situation

    • Thoughts

    • Feelings

    • Beliefs


Technique a thinking check in1
Technique A: Thinking Check-In

Step 1: State the violation or rule-breaking behavior to the offender.

Step 2: Have the offender describe circumstances leading to the violation or rule-breaking behavior

Step 3: Have the offender identify the thoughts and feelings leading to the behavior

Step 4: Have the offender identify one specific risk or trigger thought

Step 5: Have the offender identify one specific replacement thought

Step 6: Contract with the offender to use the replacement thought in future situations


Roleplay debriefing
ROLEPLAY / DEBRIEFING

  • State the violation.

  • Describe circumstances.

  • Identify thoughts and feelings.

  • Identify one specific risk thought.

  • Identify one specific replacement thought.

  • Offender agrees to use replacement thought.



Conflict Cycle

Stress

+

Beliefs

Problem

Feelings

Thoughts

Consequences

Actions


Mock supervision plan
Mock Supervision Plan

1. Problem

A. Negative behavior pattern

B. Significant contributing factors

C. Negative consequences

2. Behavior objectives

A. Positive behavior

B. Time frame

C. Positive payoff for client

3. Action plan

A. Task or activity

B. Time frame

C. Officer participation/revisions



Conflict Cycle

Stress

+

Beliefs

Problem

Feelings

Thoughts

Consequences

Actions


Thinking for a change problem solving steps
Thinking for a Change:Problem Solving Steps

  • Stop and Think

  • Problem Description

  • Getting information to set a Goal

  • Choices and Consequences

  • Choose-Plan-Do

  • Evaluate


Technique b problem solving framework
Technique B: Problem Solving Framework:

Step 1: Have the offender describe the problem and analyze the situation including:

Facts about the problem/situation

Others’ Thoughts and Feelings (those who might be involved and or affected by the problem)

Offender’s Opinions and Beliefs about the problem/situation

Step 2: Have the offender identify a goal regarding the problem/situation using one of the following formulas:

I want __________________________________. OR

I want ______________ but I don’t want ____________.


Step 3 brainstorm possible choices to solve the problem consider the consequence for each choice
Step 3: Brainstorm possible choices to solve the problem. Consider the consequence for each choice.

Step 4: Have the offender examine the choices and select the option that will increase the likelihood of achieving the identified goal.

Step 5: Develop an action plan with the offender that will allow the offender to implement the chosen choice.Who will be involved? When will the plan be implemented? Where will the plan be implemented? What will be done?

Step 6: Contract with the offender to implement the action plan

Step 7: Evaluate the action plan at the next report


Role play debriefing
ROLE PLAY / DEBRIEFING

  • Describe and analyze the problem.

  • Identify a goal.

  • BRAINSTORM choices and consequences.

  • Choose the best option.

  • Develop an action plan.

  • Contract with the offender to implement the plan.


Choosing a technique
Choosing a Technique

  • A failure to perform a particular behavior.

  • A failure to stop performing a particular behavior.

  • Why is it occurring?

    • Cognitive error/rationalization

    • Logistical problem


Choosing a technique1
Choosing a Technique

  • Choose a scenario from the handout.

  • Discuss with your partner which technique you would use and why.

  • Once you agree on the technique, choose another scenario and repeat the exercise.



These techniques
These Techniques...

1. Address risk factors.

2. Avoid power struggles.

3. Assists in effective documentation.

4. Allow a meaningful opportunity to change.


Training objectives1
Training Objectives

  • Present and discuss components of Thinking for a Change (T4C)

  • Provide research that supports T4C

  • Explain how techniques can be used in daily interactions with offenders

  • Demonstrate techniques

  • Participants practice techniques


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