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Maternal Behavior. Biological Basis of Maternal Behavior. An innate behavior in ewe, maternal behavior can be induced with a combination of estrogen and progesterone and progesterone followed by corticosteroid increasing oxytocin in the cerebrospinal fluid -- stimulate maternal behavior.

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Biological Basis of Maternal Behavior

  • An innate behavior

  • in ewe, maternal behavior can be induced with a combination of estrogen andprogesterone and progesterone followed by corticosteroid

  • increasing oxytocin in the cerebrospinal fluid -- stimulate maternal behavior


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General Principles of Maternal Behavior

  • Learning

    • the role of learning in maternal behavior is found mostly in higher primate

    • Not well investigate in domestic animal

    • Beef is compared to dairy cattle >>> beef cattle exhibit more maternal behavior


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General Principles of Maternal Behavior

  • Concaveation

    • the role of higher portion of the CNS is phenomenon by which the presence of neonates can induce maternal behavior in virgin female and even in males >>called “concaveation”

    • Olfactory bulbectomized rat >> increase in cannibalism



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Maternal Behavior of Domestic Animal

  • Pig

    • confined sow

    • nest building : last 48 hr prepartum -- nest seeking, nest building (gathering nest material, arranging it by rooting, nosing)


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Pigs

  • Parturition

    • once labor begins : lie down in lateral recumbency, swish her tail violently as abdominal straining take place

    • parturition usually take 3-4 hr (but vary with litter size and condition of the gilt)


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Pigs

  • Parturition (cont)

    • Behavior of the Sow Toward the Neonate

      • not confine: eat placenta

      • most piglet begin to breath, quickly struggle free from the fetal membrane, a few will not

      • human : help to remove membrane, clearing of the airway, stimulation of respiration


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Pigs

  • Parturition (cont)

    • Behavior of the Neonatal Piglet Toward the Sow

      • most startling transition from fetal to independent existence

      • most piglet are nursing within 30 min

      • piglet are attracted to soft, warm surface, pig vocalization, and the sow’s odor

      • first born piglet : use thermal, tactile, olfactory cue to find udder


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Pigs

  • Nursing

    • 10 hr after the birth of first pigs -- nursing become cyclic (bout, every 40 min)

    • peak of grunting frequency of sow (call piglet, massage the udder with snout) -- correspond with oxytocin


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Pigs

  • Mutual Recognition

    • use olfaction to identify one another but need more than 1 days

    • piglet can identify their dam’s feces, milk and urine odor and vocalization

    • piglet can easily be fostered onto other sow (sow’s litter < 1 day old)

    • sow will reject strange piglets older than 2 days (based on olfaction)


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Pigs

  • Clinical problems

    • canibalism

    • defensive reaction

    • cross fostering


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Sheep

  • Parturition

  • Licking and sucking

  • Acceptance of the lamb

  • Mutual recognition by the ewe and lamb

    • recognition of the lamb by the ewe : depend on at least 3 senses : olfactory, auditory, and vision


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Sheeps

  • Mutual recognition by the ewe and lamb

    • recognition of the ewe by the lamb :not able to discriminate her ewe very well (early), mature lamb : visual cues become more important

      • auditory cue -- important


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Sheep

  • Clinical problems

    • cross fostering

    • mis-mothering

    • oral vice of artificial reared lamb


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Goats

  • When parturition approach, multiparous doe, leave the herd -- seek a sheltered place, and defend this area : lick the kid, vocalize frequently

  • Intensive maternal behavior -- short-lived

  • the kid -- left the does to hide and the does will rejoin the herd or stay


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Goats

  • Clinical problem

    • kid rejection


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Cattle

  • Parturition

    • 82% :- occur between noon and midnight, placenta -- eaten by cow

  • Bonding

    • heritability of maternal behavior :- low in cattle, some breed -- more than the other breed

    • cow groom their calve -- early postpartum, concentrating on the back and abdomen


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Cattle

  • Bonding (cont)

    • critical period for formation of the cow-calf bond -- the first few hours postpartum

  • Suckling

    • passive transfer of immunity to calves :- poor in dystocia

  • Clinical problem

    • nonnutritional sucking

    • cross fostering


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Horse

  • Parturition

    • onset of parturition in mare :- heralded by waxing of the udder

    • body temperature : low, walk more, stand less

    • first stage is 4 hr, restless, crouch, straddle, urinate

    • the smell of fetal fluid -- attractive to parturient mare

    • second stage :- lateral recumbency, violent, short time


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Horse

  • Postparturient behavior

    • licking

    • sniffing :- concentrate first on the head later on hind quarter (perianal area)

    • imprinting

  • Nursing

    • suckling 4 times per day

    • wean at 40 weeks


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Horse

  • Mutual recognition

    • neigh or winnies -- locate her foal

  • Clinical problem

    • mis-mothering

    • foal rejection


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Cat

  • Parturition

  • Nursing, teat order

  • Grooming

  • Acceptance of kittens

  • Clinical problem

    • infanticide

    • mis-mothering


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Dog

  • Parturition

  • Nursing

  • Weaning

  • Clinical problem

    • pseudopregnancy

    • maternal rejection


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