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Maternal Behavior. Biological Basis of Maternal Behavior. An innate behavior in ewe, maternal behavior can be induced with a combination of estrogen and progesterone and progesterone followed by corticosteroid increasing oxytocin in the cerebrospinal fluid -- stimulate maternal behavior.

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Presentation Transcript
biological basis of maternal behavior
Biological Basis of Maternal Behavior
  • An innate behavior
  • in ewe, maternal behavior can be induced with a combination of estrogen andprogesterone and progesterone followed by corticosteroid
  • increasing oxytocin in the cerebrospinal fluid -- stimulate maternal behavior
slide3

General Principles of Maternal Behavior

  • Learning
    • the role of learning in maternal behavior is found mostly in higher primate
    • Not well investigate in domestic animal
    • Beef is compared to dairy cattle >>> beef cattle exhibit more maternal behavior
slide4

General Principles of Maternal Behavior

  • Concaveation
    • the role of higher portion of the CNS is phenomenon by which the presence of neonates can induce maternal behavior in virgin female and even in males >>called “concaveation”
    • Olfactory bulbectomized rat >> increase in cannibalism
maternal behavior of domestic animal
Maternal Behavior of Domestic Animal
  • Pig
    • confined sow
    • nest building : last 48 hr prepartum -- nest seeking, nest building (gathering nest material, arranging it by rooting, nosing)
slide7

Pigs

  • Parturition
    • once labor begins : lie down in lateral recumbency, swish her tail violently as abdominal straining take place
    • parturition usually take 3-4 hr (but vary with litter size and condition of the gilt)
slide8

Pigs

  • Parturition (cont)
    • Behavior of the Sow Toward the Neonate
      • not confine: eat placenta
      • most piglet begin to breath, quickly struggle free from the fetal membrane, a few will not
      • human : help to remove membrane, clearing of the airway, stimulation of respiration
slide9

Pigs

  • Parturition (cont)
    • Behavior of the Neonatal Piglet Toward the Sow
      • most startling transition from fetal to independent existence
      • most piglet are nursing within 30 min
      • piglet are attracted to soft, warm surface, pig vocalization, and the sow’s odor
      • first born piglet : use thermal, tactile, olfactory cue to find udder
slide10

Pigs

  • Nursing
    • 10 hr after the birth of first pigs -- nursing become cyclic (bout, every 40 min)
    • peak of grunting frequency of sow (call piglet, massage the udder with snout) -- correspond with oxytocin
slide11

Pigs

  • Mutual Recognition
    • use olfaction to identify one another but need more than 1 days
    • piglet can identify their dam’s feces, milk and urine odor and vocalization
    • piglet can easily be fostered onto other sow (sow’s litter < 1 day old)
    • sow will reject strange piglets older than 2 days (based on olfaction)
slide12

Pigs

  • Clinical problems
    • canibalism
    • defensive reaction
    • cross fostering
slide13

Sheep

  • Parturition
  • Licking and sucking
  • Acceptance of the lamb
  • Mutual recognition by the ewe and lamb
    • recognition of the lamb by the ewe : depend on at least 3 senses : olfactory, auditory, and vision
slide14

Sheeps

  • Mutual recognition by the ewe and lamb
    • recognition of the ewe by the lamb :not able to discriminate her ewe very well (early), mature lamb : visual cues become more important
      • auditory cue -- important
slide15

Sheep

  • Clinical problems
    • cross fostering
    • mis-mothering
    • oral vice of artificial reared lamb
slide16

Goats

  • When parturition approach, multiparous doe, leave the herd -- seek a sheltered place, and defend this area : lick the kid, vocalize frequently
  • Intensive maternal behavior -- short-lived
  • the kid -- left the does to hide and the does will rejoin the herd or stay
slide17

Goats

  • Clinical problem
    • kid rejection
slide18

Cattle

  • Parturition
    • 82% :- occur between noon and midnight, placenta -- eaten by cow
  • Bonding
    • heritability of maternal behavior :- low in cattle, some breed -- more than the other breed
    • cow groom their calve -- early postpartum, concentrating on the back and abdomen
slide19

Cattle

  • Bonding (cont)
    • critical period for formation of the cow-calf bond -- the first few hours postpartum
  • Suckling
    • passive transfer of immunity to calves :- poor in dystocia
  • Clinical problem
    • nonnutritional sucking
    • cross fostering
slide20

Horse

  • Parturition
    • onset of parturition in mare :- heralded by waxing of the udder
    • body temperature : low, walk more, stand less
    • first stage is 4 hr, restless, crouch, straddle, urinate
    • the smell of fetal fluid -- attractive to parturient mare
    • second stage :- lateral recumbency, violent, short time
slide21

Horse

  • Postparturient behavior
    • licking
    • sniffing :- concentrate first on the head later on hind quarter (perianal area)
    • imprinting
  • Nursing
    • suckling 4 times per day
    • wean at 40 weeks
slide22

Horse

  • Mutual recognition
    • neigh or winnies -- locate her foal
  • Clinical problem
    • mis-mothering
    • foal rejection
slide23

Cat

  • Parturition
  • Nursing, teat order
  • Grooming
  • Acceptance of kittens
  • Clinical problem
    • infanticide
    • mis-mothering
slide24

Dog

  • Parturition
  • Nursing
  • Weaning
  • Clinical problem
    • pseudopregnancy
    • maternal rejection
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