Elmer M. Dengler  State Grazing Specialist
Download
1 / 36

Considerations in developing hay and pasture systems: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 230 Views
  • Uploaded on

Elmer M. Dengler State Grazing Specialist Maryland Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative Coalition United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Considerations in developing hay and pasture systems: ' - Michelle


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

Elmer M. Dengler State Grazing Specialist

Maryland Grazing Lands Conservation

Initiative Coalition

United States Department of Agriculture

Natural Resources Conservation Service

through your local Soil Conservation Districts


Slide2 l.jpg

Best Management Practices

Flexible Components of

Holistic Resource Management Systems


Slide4 l.jpg

Holistic Resource Management

NRCS USDA Holistic Resource Management is SWAPA +H

Soil

Water

Air

Plants

Animals

Humans – Management - Performance, Production,

Land Stewardship ( erosion, water quality,

environmental impact)


Considerations in developing hay and pasture systems l.jpg
Considerations in developing hay and pasture systems:

  • What are the natural resource advantages and challenges of the farm?

  • a. Soil & site characteristics

    -- Soil type & suitability

    (depth, drainage, etc.)

    -- Soil fertility

    -- Site topography


Considerations in developing hay and pasture systems6 l.jpg
Considerations in developing hay and pasture systems:

  • What are my natural resource advantages and challenges?

  • a.Soil & site characteristics

    -- Soil type & suitability

    (depth, drainage, etc.)

    -- Soil fertility

    -- Site topographyThese factors determine what can be grown and the type of livestock system that can be supported.


Considerations in developing hay and pasture systems7 l.jpg
Considerations in developing hay and pasture systems:

2. What are the goals & objectives of the intended grazing system?

-- Summer pasture

-- Maximize grazing/minimize


Choose your species based on l.jpg
Choose your species based on:

  • Species adaptation to site.

  • Species response to cutting or grazing system.

  • Potential forage yield and seasonal distribution of growth.

  • Palatability and nutritional value.

  • Persistence.


Slide9 l.jpg

The Chesapeake Bay Initiative and you.

How are these issues regulated.

Mud - water pollution MDE - Water Management

Ruts - water pollution MDE – Water Management

Manure - water pollution MDA – Nutrient Mgt. Law

8 Animal Units – 1 AU is 1,000 lbs)

Chemicals - water pollution MDA – Label, Restricted Use

Invasive species - habitat losses – MDA / DNR / County

Fertilizer - water pollution MDA- Nutrient Mgt Law

Zoning – type/ number of animals/acre –County Level


Slide10 l.jpg

The Chesapeake Bay Initiative and you.

Where to get technical help on these issues,

Mud - water pollution SCD (MDA , NRCS), Extension

Ruts - water pollution SCD (MDA, NRCS), Extension

Manure - water pollution Extension, SCD (MDA, NRCS)

Chemicals – Extension, SCD (MDA, NRCS)

Invasive species - Extension, SCD (MDA, NRCS)

Fertilizer - Extension, SCD (MDA, NRCS)

Zoning - type/ number of animals/acre -SCD, County Zoning


Slide11 l.jpg

The Chesapeake Bay Initiative and you.

Where maybe to get financial help on these issues,

Mud - water pollution SCD (MDA , NRCS)

Ruts - water pollution SCD (MDA, NRCS)

Manure - water pollution SCD (MDA, NRCS)

Chemicals - SCD (MDA, NRCS)

Invasive species SCD (MDA, NRCS)


Slide13 l.jpg

The Horse as a Social Animal.

An issue that directly effects holistic resource management.

Dr Temple Grandin - Livestock Handling and Behavior –

Colorado State University

She has owned, loved, and worked with horses all her life.

People with autism see things more as animals do.

Some comments she has granted me to use on

horse management from her book, Animals in Translation :


Slide14 l.jpg

Page 155: Animals in Translation.

“Socializing Animals to Others Animals Anyone who interacts with

animals has to know how to manage an animals’ aggressive nature. Two

actions are essential: make sure the animals is properly socialized to other

animals, and make sure the animal is properly socialized to people.

You have to make sure animals are socialized to other animals because

most of what animals do in life they learn from other animals. Adults teach

their young where to eat, what to eat, whom to socialize with, and whom to

have sex with. The adults teach the young one social rules and respect for

their own kind. If an animal does not learn these rules when he’s young,

there may be many problem behaviors when he grows up…


Slide15 l.jpg

Page 158: Animals in Translation.

On wild horses…. In the wild, constant fighting is not normal…

When a stallion is raised in solitary confinement he never learns normal

social behavior, and that’s what makes him dangerous to other males…

Raising young stud colts in a pasture full of older geldings will teach

them some manners and create a good stallion that you can ride like

a normal horse, People with fancy horses are actually abusing them

with too much care. Young horses need to get out and have a chance

to be horses…….

Concerning a horse she worked with called Blackie; I think that since

Blackie had never learned social skills he had never learned that once

he had Achieved dominance he no longer had to keep fighting. “


Slide16 l.jpg

Forage Quality, Animal Behavior, and Health

Management Considerations

Why continuous grazing is like kids in a candy store.

Under continuous grazing (one paddock no animal movement).

Horses will regraze the same plants every 3-5 days when

Regrowth forage volume wise is sweeter

( think of young tender carrots.)

Rotational grazing allows for more grass maturity with

more fiber and volume wise less sugar.

More research looking at rotational grazing and sugars

needs to be done.


Slide17 l.jpg

Putting A Basic Pasture

Rotation System Together and BMP Components

Management Considerations

How Fast - Managing by grass heights is the best.

Most grass grazing recovery is 15 – 30 days.

Time varies by time of year, heights do not.

This waiting time is necessary for grass to regrow

and be productive. (Like when you have the flu)

Less than 15 days will cause grass death

Continuous provides how much rest?


Slide19 l.jpg

Putting A Basic Pasture

Rotation System Together and BMP Components

Management Considerations

Grazing heights

Grass Begin End

Orchardgrass 10” 3”

Tall Fescue 10” 3”

KY Bluegrass 5” 2”



Slide23 l.jpg

Putting A Basic Pasture

Rotation System Together and BMP Components

One typical starting point.

Weeds indicate a soil/ grass / animal issue.

Check pH first – Fix that first.

regrowth time and grazing time problems.

Complete reestablishment works the best.

Overseeding 0-20% of seeds make it.

Plan a management system then install BMPs


Slide24 l.jpg

Putting A Basic Pasture

Rotation System Together and BMP Components

Soil – Plant Considerations

Simple mixes of one or two grasses

or varieties of same grass best for the site’s

climate, soil, drainage and management.

Complex mixes come on strong

And do not persist.

What is least adapted dies first

Weeds take it place.


Slide25 l.jpg

Putting A Basic Pasture

Rotation System Together and BMP Components

Animal Behavior Considerations

Animals put pressure on what they

like most and ignore the rest and

Kill the best out.

An old pasture has what they don’t want.

Why keep it? Complete reestablishment is the best

and cheapest in the long run.

Animals learn what they like and that can be changed.


Slide26 l.jpg

Putting A Basic Pasture

Rotation System Together and BMP Components

What comes first.

Sacrifice Area

Water Systems

Pasture Establishment 2 acres/ animal unit

( 1000 lb animal ) to start

Minimum 3 paddocks for a rotational

grazing system

Fencing


Slide27 l.jpg

THE VALUE OF A HORSE GRAZING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR COVER IN DOLLARS AND SENSE?

ASSUME:6 Acres of well drained soil with a pH 6.2 with good fertility

3 horses / one fenced field / 1 watering system in place

Cost of replacement forage is $3.00 / small hay bale

Established Novel Endophyte Tall Fescue and Kentucky bluegrass on all

acres with an annual yield of 4.5 tons (9,000 lbs)/ acre

LET’S EVALUATE SOME KEY EXPENSESOVER 5 YEARS

1 PADDOCK SYSTEM 3 PADDOCK SYSTEM

Purchased hay $ 5,220 Purchased hay $ 4,860

Seeding costs (seed only) 3,000 Seeding costs (seed only) 300

Temporary fencing 0 Temporary fencing 800

Watering system 0 Portable Watering system 600

System cost $ 8,220 System cost $ 6,560

ROTATIONAL GRAZING FOR COVER DOESN’T COST, IT PAYS AND CREATES MUCH LESS RESEEDING HEADACHES!

Forage calculations were done using the NRCS Maryland Grazing Handbook and C-Graz Grazing Analysis Tool. Cost estimates were based on using basic portable fencing and watering systems.


Slide28 l.jpg

Only about 25% of the forage yield potential will be realized due to regrazing of recovering grass plants. Grass quickly regrazed is high in sugar a concern with founder issues. Constant regrazing will cause rapid stand death.

Value of pasture forage is 45 small bales of hay / acre. Needed additional hay/acre: 58 small bales of hay costing $174 an acre or $1,044 a year or $5,220 over a 5 year expected stand life in a 6 paddock rotation.

Annual reseeding costs

$100 an acre (seed only) or $600 per year.

EXISTING CONTINUOUS GRAZING HORSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM - NO COVER

  • 1 6 ACRE Paddock

  • Also suggest having a sacrifice area to prevent the worst compaction in wet field conditions.

  • To prevent grazing below recommended heights which will kill your grass, feed animals hay elsewhere when grass is below recommended grazing heights.

LEGEND

0 Days in Recovery

30 Days Grazing per paddock

1 Paddock

No Rotation

GRAZING

RECOVERY


Slide29 l.jpg

Age of forage should be fine for most horses. realized due to regrazing of recovering grass plants.About 27% of the forage yield potential will be realized due to short regrowth time and regrazing of the grass plants, but this grass recovery time usually will maintain cover. Think about your lawn!

Pasture forage produced equals49 bales/acre: Worth $147 an acre or $882 a year or $4, 410 over a 5 yearexpected stand life in a 3 paddock rotation where animals are moved when grass removal heights are reached to the sacrifice area. Additional forage needs are 54 bales/acre or $162 in purchased hay per acre or $ 972 per year or $4,860 over a five year period.

Annual reseeding costs for spot treatments should be less than$10 /acre or $60/yr (seed only).

HORSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR COVER

6 Acres

3 Horses

3 2 Acre

Paddocks

7 days in a paddock per rotation.

To prevent grazing

below

recommended

heights. Feed

animals hay

elsewhere when

grass is below

recommend grazing

heights.

Also need to have a

sacrifice area ( Corral,

field, building ) to

prevent the worst

compaction in wet

field conditions.

LEGEND

14 Days in Recovery

7 Days Grazing per paddock per 21 day rotation.

GRAZING

3 Paddocks

21 Day Rotation

RECOVERY

SACRIFICE AREA

Maryland USDA NRCS


Slide31 l.jpg

Age of forage should be good for horses, medium quality needs.About 58% of the forage yield potential will be realized due to some rejection and regrazing of grass plants, but grass recovery time is adequate for all purposes.

6 PADDOCK SYSTEM

ACRES

6 1 ACRE Paddocks

Also suggest having a

sacrifice area to

prevent the worst

compaction in wet

field conditions.

To prevent grazing below recommended heights which will kill your grass, feed animals hay elsewhere when grass is below recommended grazing heights.

LEGEND

30 Days in Recovery

6 Days Grazing per paddock

6 Paddocks

36 Day Rotation

GRAZING

RECOVERY

Maryland USDA NRCS


Benefits of rotational grazing l.jpg
Benefits of Rotational Grazing needs.

  • Adequate Grass Recovery produces

  • Maximum forage growth and quality.

  • Longest stand life and cuts costs.

  • Greater ability to produce desired weight management with less grain and supplements.

  • Greatest environmental benefits.

  • Nutrients

  • Water Quality


Slide35 l.jpg


Slide36 l.jpg

The End ---- Questions? local soil conservation district offices and extension offices.


ad