Regulatory Imagination and Justice Research
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Regulatory Imagination and Justice Research or Regulatory Theory and Crime Prevention; Criminological Theory and Better Regulation John Braithwaite RegNet Australian National University 1st Annual Lecture: Regulation, Security & Justice Centre, University of Manchester Law School.

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Regulatory Imagination and Justice Research

or

Regulatory Theory and Crime Prevention;

Criminological Theory and Better Regulation

John Braithwaite

RegNet

Australian National University

1st Annual Lecture: Regulation, Security & Justice Centre,

University of Manchester Law School


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Conclusions

We live in an era of Regulatory Capitalism

  • Regulatory theory can help solve crime problems

  • Criminological theory can help solve regulatory problems

  • Big problems like climate change, war, poverty and the global financial crisis are both regulatory problems and crime problems

In such a world:


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David Levi-Faur and Jacint Jordana show empirically that we live in an era that they dubbed RegulatoryCapitalism

  • Jordana, J and Levi-Faur, D (Eds.) The Politics of Regulation: Examining Regulatory Institutions and Instruments in the Governance Age, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2004.

  • Levi-Faur, D. The Global Diffusion of Regulatory Capitalism, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 598, 2005, 12-32.

  • Levi-Faur, D. Regulatory Capitalism & the Reassertion of the Public Interests, Policy and Society, Vol. 27 (3), 2008, 181-191.


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Here is a history of the growth of regulatory capitalism in data prepared by David Levi-Faur, Jacint Jordana and Xavier Fernandez


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A paramilitary police specializing in crime control globalized from 1829 from Sir Robert Peel’s model for London.

Modelling is the most important mechanism of the globalization of regulation

  • It is activated by Model Mongers, activists who keep a model on the back burner until a crisis allows them to implement it

  • Model Missionaries spread the model to ‘less enlightened’ parts of the world

  • Model Mercenaries make money spreading the model

  • Model Misers prefer copying to innovating to avoid model debugging costs

  • Model Modernisers copy models from the centre of the world system so they look modern, civilized or progressive, even if the model does not work in their context!

See John Braithwaite and Peter Drahos, Global Business Regulation, Cambridge University Press, 2000.


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  • Regulation is that large subset of governance that is about steering the flow of events (as opposed to providing and distributing).

  • More of governance today is about regulation.

  • This is true not only of state governance, but also private governance by corporations, industry associations, professional associations and hybrid private-public governance (eg some Fair Trade certification).

  • Corporations, like states, govern more through contract and audit of compliance.

  • Descriptively, Regulatory Capitalism is an era with stronger regulation and stronger markets. One of the things regulation has achieved is freeing up markets.

See John Braithwaite, Regulatory Capitalism: How it Works, Ideas for Making it Work Better, Edward Elgar, 2008.


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The ‘Regulatory Craft’ should seek to maximise republican freedom – freedom as non-domination

John Braithwaite and Philip Pettit, Not Just Deserts: A Republican Theory of Criminal Justice, Oxford, 1990.

Philip Pettit, Republicanism, Oxford, 1997.

Malcolm Sparrow, The Regulatory Craft, Brookings, 2000.


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How a combination of regulatory imagination and criminological imagination can advance some solutions to selected problems:

  • The Global Financial Crisis

  • Climate Change

  • Fiscal Balance by Tackling Tax Cheating

  • Health and Aged Care Regulation

  • World Peace


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Theories on which Lawrence Sherman has been a key contributor:

  • Hot spots

  • Defiance theory

  • Restorative justice

  • Responsive regulation


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Defiance theory and the context of when deterrence increases violence and crime, and when it reduces it

J. Braithwaite et al, Peacebuilding Compared Papua Working Paper


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Assumption violence and crime, and when it reduces it

Incompetent or Irrational Actor

Rational Actor

Virtuous Citizen

Learning Citizen


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An Australian Nursing Home Enforcement Pyramid violence and crime, and when it reduces it


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Network partner violence and crime, and when it reduces it

Network partner

Network partner

Network partner

Network partner

Network partner

Networked

regulation

plus-plus

Network partner

Network partner

Networked

regulation plus

Network partner

Network partner

Networked regulation

Network partner

Network partner

Self-regulation

J. Braithwaite, Responsive Regulation and Developing Economies, World Development, 34, 2006, 884-898.


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Regulatory Pyramid violence and crime, and when it reduces it

Strengths-based Pyramid

From J. Braithwaite, T. Makkai and V. Braithwaite, Regulating Aged Care, Edward Elgar, 2007.


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Volume 1 - Peacebuilding in Oceania: Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand and Regional Peacekeeping

Bougainville

Aceh

West Kalimantan

Papua

Maluku – Ambon

Central Kalimantan

North Maluku – Ternate

SolomonIslands

Central Sulawesi – Poso

Timor-Leste


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GNR New Zealand and Regional Peacekeeping


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GNR gang fighting control pyramid in Timor-Leste New Zealand and Regional Peacekeeping


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Laskar Jihad New Zealand and Regional Peacekeeping


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Ambon Mosque: Arif Pole Erected by Christian Neighbours New Zealand and Regional Peacekeeping


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The enforcement swamping problem and: New Zealand and Regional Peacekeeping

  • Disarming militias

  • Corruption

  • Tax compliance


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  • Ethnic conflict in poor multi-ethnic societies mostly starts in rural areas, then spreads to the capital.

  • So the challenge is rural policing that prevents violence before it spreads.

  • That requires reversing the global modelling of Sir Robert Peel’s revolution in policing.

  • Also required to end illegal logging of tropical forests.


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Last year I worked at the camp. There were seven Malaysian men there, and every one was married to a young girl - 13 or 14. They are not interested in the older girls - once they are 18.

Solomon Islander former logger.

T. Herbert, Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the Solomon Islands, 2007.


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The Global Financial Crisis men there, and every one was married to a young girl - 13 or 14. They are not interested in the older girls - once they are 18.

  • Housing loan defaults concentrated at hot-spots of US banking.

  • A preventive strategy would have been to threaten negative licensing of particular bankers and particular banks at those hot-spots.

  • Then offer them a restorative justice conference to repair the harm and prevent spread of the harm.

  • How restorative justice might have prevented the collapse of Arthur Andersen, Enron and Worldcom (HIH and One.tel in Australia) in 2001.


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Conclusions men there, and every one was married to a young girl - 13 or 14. They are not interested in the older girls - once they are 18.

We live in an era of Regulatory Capitalism

  • Regulatory theory can help solve crime problems

  • Criminological theory can help solve regulatory problems

  • Big problems like climate change, war, poverty and the global financial crisis are both regulatory problems and crime problems

In such a world:


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