The Effects of Character Education on Reading Achievement. Nicole O’Leary Ed. 7202T, Fall 2010. Table of Contents. Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of the Hypothesis Methods Results Discussion Implications Threats to Validity References.
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Ed. 7202T, Fall 2010
Statement of the Problem
Review of Related Literature
Statement of the Hypothesis
Threats to Validity
Society is faced with the erosion of its moral and ethical standing. This is evident in the behavior of inner-city students. Teachers can not teach and students can not produce until we embrace an approach that uses all phases of school life to develop character (Weinstock,Assor &Broide, 2008). It is neither possible nor desirable to leave moral issues outside of the realm of schooling (Damon, 2005).
“A perceived increase in social problems experienced by children and youth, accompanied by advances in psychological theory, resulted in a marked increase in emotional, social, and moral (ESC) education inschools in the 1990’s.”McKenzie, M. (2004).
“…the most important revelation on values is that they are not innate, but must be taught…” (Lickona)Sanchez, T. (2004).
“Historically, the goal of a public education system was to develop a moral society. Brimi, H. (2009).
“There is a push toward standards-based learning in the area of social and character development. Social and behavioral goals can be intertwined with current academic goals.”
Sailor, W., Stowe, M., Turnbull, H., & Kleinhammer, P. (2007)
“Implementing programs to improve student behavior associated with character is a task worth undertaking.”
Bulach, C. (2002).
“Character Education is any school-directed program designed to shape directly and systematically the behavior of young people by teaching explicitly the nonrelativistic values believed to directly bring about good behavior.” Lockwood, L. (2007)
“ Our research suggests that schools goals and activities that are associated with good character education programs are also associated with academic achievement.” Benninga, J., Berkowitz, M., Keuhn, P., Smith, K. (2006)
“ “Before, you used the term ‘respect’ and they didn’t know what it meant, so this has introduced it as a real thing that we expect at school.” ” Nickell, P., Field,S. (2001)
“ Schools characterized by a strong sense of community… report higher attendance and improvements in academic performance.” Lapsely,D., Narvaez,D. (2008)
“The adoption of a moral education curriculum appears to act to facilitate conscious attention to teachers’ moral manner in the way in which they carry out the activities of teaching.” Fenstermacher, G., Osguthorpe, R., Sanger, M. (2009)
“If teacher self-efficacy for moral education is considered a predictor of teaching practices which in turn are expected to effect the moral development of youth, then positive score change might provide initial evidence of program effectiveness.” Narvaez, D., Khmelkov, V., Vaydich, J., Turner, J. (2008)
“ We cannot so easily shirk responsibility for assisting students’ moral growth. Parents and the wider family should hold the highest degree of responsibility in this matter. However, if they fail, we are perhaps the only barrier left between the students and potentially life devastating decisions.” Brimi, H. (2009)
“A convincing 90% feel that teachers play an important role in the character education of students.” Mathison, C. (1998)
“Whatever the rhetoric in the classroom, students are very attuned to their teachers actual behavior.” Battistich, V. (2008)
“By intentionally including discussions on good character in literature study, we can help assure that children develop characters that know, love, and do good-- perhaps our most important work as teachers.” O’Sullivan, S. ( 2004)
“Students need not only the academic and knowledge skills for their future, but they need to learn to become productive and caring citizens.” Chang, F., Munoz, M. (2007)
“Elementary school teachers feel confident in their abilities to serve as role models, to discuss issues of right and wrong with their students, and to use strategies that might lead to positive changes in students’ character.” Milson, A., Mehlig, L. (2002)
“In a study of random, stratified sample of 120 California elementary schools applying for state recognition for excellence, it was found that academic achievement scores were significantly correlated with four aspects of character education.” Berkowitz, M., Bier, M. (2007)
“Research by Nucchi (2001) found that between third grade and fifth, the amount of discourse between students and teachers about ethical issues gradually declined. The trend continues and by grade seven it is so infrequent that researchers could not employ a statistical analysis.” Howard, R. (2005)
“The strategies used in character education vary among programs and can include role modeling, moral discipline, democratic classroom environments, cooperative learning, service projects, drama, literature, etc…” McKenzie, M. (2004)
“Education innovations live or die by the amount and quality of assistance that their users receive once they are underway.” Hollingshead, B. (2009)
(HR1) Providing 6 fifth grade students from P.S. X with a consistent infusion of character education during 25-minute sessions, 3 days a week, over an 8-week period during Guided Reading, will positively impact reading levels.
Quasi Experimental: OX1O, OX2O
Two groups: Treatment group (X1) (new/experimental treatment) and control group (X2) (traditional treatment/no treatment)
Both groups (X1 and X2) are pre and post tested (O)
Total population: Fifth grade students from P.S. X
Group A: 6 students (Character Ed-infused Guided Reading
Group B: 6 students (Guided Reading w/ no attention to Character Education)
Groups not randomly assigned
Students with equal reading ability
Each group: 3 boys, 3 girls
Use of same reading resources and assessment tools
2 Guided Reading Groups with equal reading ability
Each group comprised of 3 boys and 3 girls
25-minute sessions, 3 days a week, for 8 weeks
Group A (Experimental) infusion of character education (“Traits in a Bag”)
Group B (Control) typical Guided Reading instruction (skill and strategy only)
NYS English Language Arts Test (2010)
Periodic Reading Benchmarks (Fountas & Pinnell)
Correlation of students' feelings of responsibility toward their education and test scores.
Survey Question: “I am responsible for my learning.”
There is a negative correlation between students’ feelings of responsibility and test scores.
Students at P.S. X performing at or approaching grade level
Student behavior is a concern
Existing character ed. program is not embraced or monitored
Though research findings were inconclusive, researcher deems it beneficial
More time needed for conclusive effects
Formal character education program that addresses all areas of curriculum
Research to be conducted with children performing below grade level
History: Schedule changes, illnesses, absences, interruptions (calls to the classroom, announcements, fire drills)
Maturation: Loss of interest in routine
Testing: Familiarity with content of test may affect scores; cheating
Instrumentation: Teacher’s rigor and enthusiasm may differ between groups
Mortality: Student transfer
Ecological: Emotional disturbances could affect outcome
Pre-Test Treatment: Anxiety during pre- test could affect reaction to the treatment
Multiple Treatment: Participants may receive more than one treatment
Treatment Diffusion: Students discussion different practices between groups
Experimenter Effects: Partiality toward one group or student
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