Production of strawberries in florida
Download
1 / 44

production of strawberries in florida - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 203 Views
  • Updated On :

Production of Strawberries in Florida. Monica Cooper. Field Preparation. Clear all debris Construct raised beds Fumigate 2 weeks later, set transplants (15-16 in.) Transplant selection early season yield 3 varieties/field ‘Sweet Charlie’ & ‘Camarosa’.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'production of strawberries in florida' - Mia_John


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Field preparation
Field Preparation

  • Clear all debris

  • Construct raised beds

  • Fumigate

  • 2 weeks later, set transplants (15-16 in.)

  • Transplant selectionearly season yield

  • 3 varieties/field

  • ‘Sweet Charlie’ & ‘Camarosa’



The pathogens
The Pathogens

  • Botrytis cinerea

  • Colletotrichum acutatum

  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

  • Colletotrichum fragariae

  • Xanthomonas fragariae

  • Sphaerotheca macularis


Gray mold
Gray mold

  • Botrytis cinerea

  • Small, firm, light brown spots

  • Fruit eventually covered with gray mass of mycelium

  • Invades blossoms, then infects maturing fruit

  • Postharvest


Management
Management

  • Leaf sanitation & plant spacing

  • Cultivars with smaller calyxes

  • Partially resistant cultivars

  • Biological controls

  • Treat transplants

  • Broad spectrum fungicide on weekly basis

  • Iprodione during peak bloom periods


Postharvest:

  • Avoid overripe or damaged fruit

  • Avoid injury

  • Cool fruit

  • Maintain in CO2 rich atmosphere


Anthracnose fruit rot
Anthracnose fruit rot

  • Colletotrichum acutatum

  • Round, firm, sunken lesions on fruit

  • Pink, orange, salmon-colored spore masses

  • Favored by warm temperatures & rainfall

  • May cause serious losses in nursery


Management practices
Management practices

  • Avoidance

  • Resistance

  • Use minimal amounts of Nitrogen

  • Remove infected fruit from field

  • Captan or Thiram (protectant)

  • Quadris (azoxystrobin)


Anthracnose crown rot
Anthracnose crown rot

  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

  • Colletotrichum fragariae

  • Wilting & death

  • Temperature dependent

  • Warm weather & frequent rainfall

  • Reddish brown rot or streaking in the tissue of the crown


Management1
Management

  • Preventative

  • End of season removal of inoculum

  • Resistant cultivars

  • Benlate (benomyl)

  • Topsin M (thiophanate-methyl)


Angular leaf spot
Angular leaf spot

  • Xanthomonas fragariae

  • Angular, water soaked leaf spots

  • Translucent lesions

  • Very resistant to desiccation

  • May become systemic


Angular leaf spot1
Angular leaf spot

  • Prevention

  • No resistant commercial cultivars

  • Copper containing bactericides


Sphaerotheca macularis
Sphaerotheca macularis

  • Powdery mildew

  • White, web-like growth

  • Undersides of leaves

  • Cool

  • High humidity

  • Severe in glasshouses & tunnels


Management2
Management

  • Clean stock

  • Destroy leaves on which pathogen overseasons

  • Protectant fungicide

  • Resistant varieties (‘Sweet Charlie’)


The arthropod pests
The Arthropod Pests

  • Twospotted spider mite

  • Armyworms

  • Thrips

  • Field cricket

  • Sap beetle


Tetranychus urticae
Tetranychus urticae

  • 88% of growers

  • Warm, spring weather

  • Reduce yield

  • Blooms and developing fruit


Spider mite
Spider mite

  • Clean transplants

  • Beneficial mites (30% of growers)

  • Miticides

    • undersides of leaves


Fall southern armyworms
Fall & Southern Armyworms

  • Spodoptera fruqiperda

  • Spodoptera eridania

  • Larvae feed on fruit & leaves

  • Prefer young, developing leaves

  • Nocturnal


Management practices1
Management practices

  • MonitoringSept. through Dec.

  • Bacillus thuringiensis

  • Methomyl


Flower thrips
Flower thrips

  • Frankliniella cephalica

  • Wind-borne

  • Rasp flowers

  • Mistaken for powdery mildew, spray burn damage


Field cricket
Field cricket

  • Gryllus firmus & G. rubens

  • 2-5 months after beds covered

  • Nymphs & adults feed on crowns & scrape seeds from green fruits



Sap beetle
Sap beetle

  • Lobiopa insularis

  • Minor concern

  • Overripe, damaged berries

  • Disseminate fruit rot pathogens

  • Warm weather


Management3
Management

  • Maintain sound fruit

  • Don’t leave overripe fruit in field

  • Harvest all areas of field

  • Scout

  • Insecticides, only in case of population explosion


Beneficial arthropods
Beneficial Arthropods

  • Predaceous mite

  • Sixspotted thrips

  • Lady beetle larva

  • Minute pirate bug larva

  • Hover fly


Phytoseiulus persimilis
Phytoseiulus persimilis

  • Orange, shiny

  • Faster than spider mites

  • Specialized predator of webspinning spider mites

  • Careful in choice of insecticides


Sixspotted thrips
Sixspotted thrips

  • Feeds on mites, other small arthropods

  • 3 dark spots on each forewing


Minute pirate bug larva
Minute pirate bug larva

  • Orius insidiosus

  • Thrips, mites, mite eggs, aphids


Hover fly
Hover fly

  • Flower fly, syrphid fly

  • Mistaken for fruit fly

  • Distinguished by ability to hover & fly backwards

  • Adultpollinators

  • Larvaepredaceous on aphid


Insecticides miticides

Methyl bromide

Methomyl (Lannate)

Armyworm

65-80% acreage

3-5.2 times/season

Fenbutatin-oxide

Vendex

Mite

31-61% acreage

1.7-4.8 times/season

Abamectin (Agri-Mek)

Mite

68-83% of acreage

2.5-3.4 times/season

Diazinon

Armyworm

24-35% of acreage

2.5-3.4 times/season

Naled (Dibrom)

15% acreage

2.2-3.1 times/season

Insecticides & Miticides


More chemicals
More chemicals

  • Carbaryl (Sevin)

    • 11% of acreage

    • 2.6 times/season

  • Bacillus thuringiensis

    • When populations of worms low

    • 57-65% of acreage

    • 4.2-5.2 times/season


Weeds

Several grasses & broadleaf weeds

Managed mainly by fumigation & plastic mulch

Weeds problem in:

Row middles

Planting holes

Perimeter of field

Nutsedge:

Most troublesome

Not managed by plastic mulch

Weeds


Weed management
Weed management

  • Cultivation of row middles

  • Hand weeding

  • Plastic mulches

  • Cover crops, sods, living mulches

  • Fallowing

  • Herbicides

    • Applied to row middles

    • Rotate herbicides due to changing weed population over 6-7 month season


Herbicides
Herbicides

  • Paraquat (Gramoxone)

    • Postemergence

    • Annual broadleaf & grasses

    • Top kill of perennials

    • Non-selective, need shield to protect berries

    • 82-98% of acreage, 1.7-1.9 applications/season

  • Napropamide (Devrinol)

    • Annual grasses & broadleaf weeds

    • Not effective on established weeds

    • Not from bloom to harvest

    • 25% of acreage, 1.23 applications/season


Nematodes

Sting

Belonolaimus longicaudatus

Root knot

Meloidogyne spp.

Foliar

Aphelenchoides sp.

Make plants more susceptible to:

Drought

Salt damage

Other pathogens

Fusarium sp.

Pythium sp.

Nematodes


Sting nematode
Sting nematode

  • Ectoparasite

  • Most damaging:

    • Nurseries

    • Transplants

  • Sandy soil

  • 25-30oC


  • Symptoms:

    • Well defined borders

    • Dead transplants

    • Stunting, decline, dormancy

    • Browning of leaf edges

  • On roots:

    • Overall, coarse appearance

    • Tips injured

    • No new growth

    • Lack of feeder roots


Nematodes1

Sampling

At end of growing season

When soil damp, not soggy or dry

10-20 samples at depth of 6-10 inches

Management practices:

Preplant or postharvest

Clean stock

Destroy crop at end of season

Fallowing with frequent tillage

Cover crop

Crop rotation

Chemicalmost common

Nematodes


Methyl bromide
Methyl bromide

  • January 1, 2005

  • Soil fumigant

  • Controls

    • Weeds

    • Nematodes

    • soil-borne pathogens & insects

  • Telone C-17 or C-35 with Devrinol

  • Telone EC

  • Mulches, cover crops


Tunnel system
Tunnel system

  • Decrease disease

  • Increase early season yields

  • Where water is limiting factor

  • ‘Sweet Charlie’


ad