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http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/strawberry.html Strawberries ! ! ! Physiology and Morphology of Strawberries Fragaria - "fragans," meaning odorous

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Http www fotosearch com photos images strawberry html l.jpg

http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/strawberry.html

Strawberries ! ! !Physiology and Morphology of Strawberries


Fragaria fragans meaning odorous l.jpg
Fragaria -"fragans," meaning odorous

“it is one of the most changeable of all crop plants, and for this reason it is one of the most widely adapted and widely raised of all crops”

G.M. Darrow, The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiology

History – The typical strawberry comes from the Americas, and is a hybrid of the North America F. virginiana and the South American F. chiloensis, developed through accidental hybridization in the early 18th century probably around Brest, France then exported back to America.

http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/strawberry.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garden_strawberry


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Physiology

  • Crown = Shortened stem, leaves at close interval, terminal inflorescence (flower).

  • Auxiliary buds = two types of stem.Short = flower stalkLong = runner (stolen)‏

  • Form from base of new leaves on crown.

http://www.hort.purdue.edu

http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/strawberry-plant_2.html


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Leaves

  • Whorled in 3’s for sun utilization.

  • Leaf numbers from 5,6,7, etc.

  • Major role in fruit initiation.

http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/strawberry-plant_2.html


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Flower

  • Belongs to the family Rosaceae.

  • It has five sepals

  • Perfect (both sexes) self-fruitful.

  • Wind or insect pollinated; insect is better.

  • 500 pistils on each receptacle.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gardenstrawberry

http://www.hort.cornell.edu/department/faculty/pritts/grnhouse.html

http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images


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Flower / Fruit

  • Its fruit is known as an accessory fruit, the seeds are the actual fruits of the plant, and the flesh of the strawberry is swollen tip of the pedicel (stem). It is whitish-green as it develops and turns red when ripe.

  • Fruit ripen 20-30 days from bloom.

  • High in vitamin C.

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garden_strawberry

  • http://www.answers.com/topic/strawberry

  • http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=1318010

http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images


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Stolen – Modified Stem

http://www.gardenaction.co.uk

  • Forms one node.

  • Then second node will form a daughter plant.

  • It would be ideal to limit to two daughters.


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Flower-Scapes - flowering stem

  • Scapes = A leafless or naked flowering stem.

  • The scape is an annual.

  • The stolens remain for another season.


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Flowering Types

  • Three types.

  • They flower once, “June bearing” or short-day.

  • twice, “Everbearing” or long-day.

  • or more than two times per year “Day-neutral”.


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Plant Development

  • Root Growth – Spring - best at cool temps (~55F).

  • Crown Growth – Spring - best at moderate temps (~65F).

  • Fruit Development – Spring - best at cool temps (~45F).

  • Leaf Growth – Late Spring - best at mod - high temps (~75F).

  • Runner Production – Summer - best under long days and high temps.

  • under Short days - need high temps >75F.

  • under Long days - best at high temps, but capable at lower temps.

  • Fruit Initiation – Late Summer – best at short days, cool temps(~55F).


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Flower Development (Morphology)

  • Induction occurs in leaf after exposure to repeated short days and/or temperatures. (Effect can be reversed.)‏

  • Initiation physical and chemical changes occurs in bud upon receipt of stimulus from leaf.

  • Differentiation development of floral organs in the bud.

  • Development visible expansion of the flower cluster out of the bud.

http://www.fotosearch.com


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Leaf Number and Yield

  • The number of leaves per plant in late fall is used as a measure of leaf area, which in itself is directly related to the number of fruits borne by the plant the next year. Many of the buds in leaf axils turn into flower buds, and usually, under average conditions, the more leaves, the more flower clusters.

    G.M. Darrow, The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiology

    http://www.nal.usda.gov/pgdic/Strawberry/book/bok9teen.htm

http://www.flowers.vg


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Formation of Flower Bud

  • A later stage showing the individual flowers on October 1. A) part that develops into the berry, B) stamens of the flower buds, C) petals. Highly magnified.

http://www.nal.usda.gov/pgdic/Strawberry/book/bok9teen.htm


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DEVELOPMENT OF GROWING POINTS

  • A drawing of a plant as it appears at the blossoming season. In the previous fall, the growing point at the end of its short stem was transformed into a flower bud which, in turn, in the spring developed into the flower cluster shown. Because its growing point became a flower bud, no further vegetative development of the plant could take place except as new growing points appeared.


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Leaves - Protection

  • The broad petiole bases of each of these three leaves encircle the entire stem or crown of the plant. Before unfolding, these petiole bases together with their stipules cover and protect the growing-point. In winter this protection is especially important.

  • By cutting the tops off as soon after the previous harvest and so removing the flower inhibition produced by leaves, yields were increased from 10 percent to about 100 percent.

Leaves - Initiation

http://www.publish.csiro.au/paper/PP98001.htm


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Growing from Seed

  • Possibly the cheapest way to establish your own strawberry bed is to grow your plants from seed - something so often forgotten, which is strange considering strawberries are one of the fruits to bare their seed on the outside! (put in blender)!

  • Spring sowing -you could get fruit in Autumn. Autumn sowing will ensure Spring and early Summer fruiting.

http://www.victoriananursery.co.uk/sot_bush_and_cane_fruits/fruit_plants/strawberry_seed_sweet_temptation/


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“June-bearing" strawberries, which bear their fruit in the early summer."Ever-bearing" strawberries, which often bear several crops of fruit throughout the season. Strawberries actually occur in three basic flowering habits: short day (June-bearing), long day (Ever-bearing), and day neutral. Day neutral cultivars produce flowers regardless of the photo-period. Most commercial strawberries are either short day or day neutral.Do you want to pick fruit all summer long???

June or Everbearing???


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Planting Strawberries early summer.

Left – too highRight – too lowMiddle – just right

http://www.gardenaction.co.uk/fruit_veg_diary


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Care early summer.

  • Strawberries need lots of water until they are well established but don't water-log them

  • Strawberries planted in September can be left to flower and fruit in their first summer

  • Strawberries prefer a well-dug, free draining soil. If the soil is water-logged the plants will quickly attract a wide variety of mold disease. Feeding strawberries is not needed if you spread a layer of well-rotted compost around the plants in early spring. This will also help retain moisture without causing water logging


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To Do: early summer.

  • March - April Remove mulch, apply row cover, set up for frost protection.

  • April - May Scout for tarnished plant bug, blossom fungicides.

  • June - Irrigate when needed.

  • July - Renovate (mow and plow), fertilize, irrigate, weed control.

  • August - Leaf analysis.

  • November - Preemergent weed control, mulch (Thanksgiving).

    http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/Berries/strawpdf/strawprodsum06.pdf


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Mowed Bed early summer.


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Thanksgiving Weekend early summer.


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Disease Index early summer.

  • Anthracnose – whole plant and fruit

  • Gray mold rot – fruit rot

  • Black Root Rot, Red Stele – root rot

  • Verticillium – leaf and shoot

  • Leaf Spot, Leaf Scorch - leaves and shoot


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Strawberry Pests early summer.

  • Strawberry bud weevil

  • Tarnished plant bug

  • Strawberry sap beetle

  • Slugs

  • Thrips

  • Fruit fly

  • Root weevil

  • Spider mite

  • Crown borer

  • Leafroller

  • White grubs

  • Aphids

  • Spittle bug

  • Cutworm

  • Leafhopper

http://www.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef207.asp


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Cultivars: early summer.

‘Lipstick’,Dow Gardens - Midland, Michiganhttp://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5146048


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Strawberry Ranch early summer.

California - Plastic mounded with below irrigation.http://www.forestryimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=1318044


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Hydroponics early summer.

“After visiting Cactus Valley, we went to Kok Lim Self Plucking Strawberry Farm at Cameron Highlands, Pahang”

http://www.jayceooi.com


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Home Hydroponics early summer.

  • Take a pop bottle and cut the top off 2/3 up the bottle.

  • Take a long piece of cloth like an old t shirt and tie it into a ball big enough not to go through the pop bottle top hole.

  • The lead must be long enough to reach the bottom when the top is inverted and put back into the bottom.

  • Fill the top with soil and put your plants in the soil.

  • Fill the bottom with a good hydroponic fertilizer at half strength. Be sure not to fill high enough for the water to reach the top sticking down.

  • Thats it. This will grow quickly and uses the best of both worlds.

http://forums.gardenweb.com/forums


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Keep it Simple. early summer.

http://home-and-garden.webshots.com


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Strawberry Bed – Home Garden early summer.

http://home-and-garden.webshots.com


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