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Homeostasis - regulating the inside. Heat exchange and Water Balance. Thermoregulation – Heat always moves from hotter to cooler area. Cold doesn’t get in, heat gets out. Figure 44.0 Fox in snow. Figure 44.3 Heat exchange between an organism and its environment.

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heat exchange and water balance

Homeostasis -

regulating the inside

Heat exchange and Water Balance

slide2
Thermoregulation –
  • Heat always moves from hotter to cooler area. Cold doesn’t get in, heat gets out.
slide7
Figure 44.4 The relationship between body temperature and ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm

Which is the conformer?

countercurrent heat exchange
Countercurrent Heat exchange
  • Opposite flowing tubes of blood exchange heat well
  • Warm arterial blood arriving to extremity

releases heat to returning blood

  • Arterial blood arrives cold to extremity and blood going to core is warm
  • Keeps core blood warm
slide10
Countercurrent flow also helps fish

exchange gases across gill filaments

skin as an organ of thermoregulation
Skin as an organ of thermoregulation

Hair/fur

Sweat glands

Capillary blood supply

Subcutaneous fat

vasodilation

vasoconstriction

piloerection…. Hair

stands up, traps air,

holds heat

slide14
Brown fat – used as a heat source in some hibernating mammals and babies
  • Nonshivering thermomgenesis – food energy is converted to heat instead of ATP
  • Other behaviors – panting, huddling, nocturnal activity, burrowing
slide19
Water Balance – keeping right amount of water in cells, blood, interstitial fluid etc. Adaptations include:
  • Waterproofing – keratnized skin, scales, skin oils
  • Kidneys conserve/excrete water
  • excretion of various nitrogen wastes require different amounts of water
  • Uric acid
  • Ammonia ( NH3 ) Urea
  • Amniote egg; internal fertilization, internal respiratory surface ( lung ) – all conserve water loss on land
  • Osmoregulation – controlling water loss and uptake in animals; ( animal cells swell/shrink )
salt excreting glands in birds
Salt-excreting glands in birds

Active transport

moves salt into

Tubule ( secretion)

nitrogen wastes are toxic and come from deaminating amino acids
Nitrogen wastes are toxic and come from deaminating amino acids
  • Urea – excreted by mammals. Requires

less water to excrete; excreted by mammals

  • Ammonia – excreted by aquatic animals.

Requires a lot of water to excrete; is highly toxic

Uric Acid – excreted by reptiles, insects, birds; nontoxic, requires little water to excrete

figure 44 13 nitrogenous wastes
Figure 44.13 Nitrogenous wastes

deamination

in Kreb’s Cycle

slide23
Osmoconformers – do not osmoregulate
  • Osmoregulators – expend a lot of energy pumping out/in water/ salt..to control their inner osmolarity. ( control is “costly” in terms of energy)
osmoregulation in a saltwater fish
Osmoregulation in a saltwater fish……

Hypertonic outside

Solution – take on

Water and salt and

Conserve water in

urine

figure 44 16 water balance in two terrestrial mammals
Figure 44.16 Water balance in two terrestrial mammals

Cell respiration makes

metabolic water

figure 44 17 key functions of excretory systems an overview
Figure 44.17 Key functions of excretory systems: an overview

Filter – forcefully screens, is

non selective

Reabsorbs –blood takes back needed

substances ( active transport )

into the blood

Secretes - active transport into the

tubule from the blood

Excretes – sends it out the body

planarian flame bulb
Planarian – flame bulb

Flame cells – mainly osmoregulate

insect malpighian tubules
Insect malpighian tubules
  • Produce a dry pasty waste of uric acid released from the rectum
  • Has help insects survive on land
slide31

Rich blood supply to

kidneys, 20% of body blood

In kidneys at all times

Urine production =

diuresis

Diuretics are drugs

that stimulate urine

production and water

loss from the body

tissues

ureter

figure 44 23 how the human kidney concentrates urine in a juxtamedullary nephron in birds mammals
Figure 44.23 How the human kidney concentrates urine in a juxtamedullary nephron in birds/ mammals.
figure 44 23 how the human kidney concentrates urine getting rid of solutes and conserving water
Figure 44.23 How the human kidney concentrates urine: getting rid of solutes and conserving water

Impermeable

to water

slide36

Figure 44.23 How the human kidney concentrates urine: Urea and NaCl in the interstitial fluid outside of nephron help reabsorb water from filtrate to make a hyperosmotic urine.

nervous system and hormones regulate the kidney
Nervous system and hormones regulate the kidney
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) made by the hypothalamus helps conserve body water.

(ADH - anti- urine production ) Hypothalmus has osmoreceptor cells

  • ADH causes distal tubule and collecting duct to become more permeable to water, thus, more water is reabsorbed back into blood from filtrate
figure 44 24 hormonal control of the kidney by negative feedback circuits
Figure 44.24 Hormonal control of the kidney by negative feedback circuits

Antidiuretic Hormone

reduces water loss

in urine, decreases

osmolarity of blood

Too much water in body

renin angiotensin aldosterone
Renin- Angiotensin-Aldosterone
  • Are secreted in response to low blood pressure.
  • Together they simulate the distal tubule to reabsorb water and Na+. This increases blood volume but does not change the osmolarity. Angiotensin alone also causes capillaries to constrict, raising blood pressure
  • Aldosterone is from the adrenal glands
figure 44 25 a vampire bat desmodus rotundas a mammal with a unique excretory situation
Figure 44.25 A vampire bat (Desmodus rotundas), a mammal with a unique excretory situation

Hypo-osmotic urine right after a blood meal before flight home

Hyperosmotic urine during sleep.

slide42
Homeostasis requires the coordinated action of several body systems
  • Give 2 examples supporting the above statement. For each, state the condition being controlled, the systems involved and explain how the systems interact to achieve homeostasis.
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