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Homeostasis - regulating the inside. Heat exchange and Water Balance. Thermoregulation – Heat always moves from hotter to cooler area. Cold doesn’t get in, heat gets out. Figure 44.0 Fox in snow. Figure 44.3 Heat exchange between an organism and its environment.

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Heat exchange and water balance l.jpg

Homeostasis -

regulating the inside

Heat exchange and Water Balance


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  • Thermoregulation –

  • Heat always moves from hotter to cooler area. Cold doesn’t get in, heat gets out.






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Figure 44.4 The relationship between body temperature and ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm

Which is the conformer?


Countercurrent heat exchange l.jpg
Countercurrent ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm Heat exchange

  • Opposite flowing tubes of blood exchange heat well

  • Warm arterial blood arriving to extremity

    releases heat to returning blood

  • Arterial blood arrives cold to extremity and blood going to core is warm

  • Keeps core blood warm


Countercurrent heat exchangers in extremities l.jpg
Countercurrent heat exchangers in extremities ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm


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Compare degree of oxygen exchange in the 2 systems l.jpg
Compare degree of oxygen exchange in the 2 systems ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm

Same direction

Opposite directions


Skin as an organ of thermoregulation l.jpg
Skin as an organ of thermoregulation ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm

Hair/fur

Sweat glands

Capillary blood supply

Subcutaneous fat

vasodilation

vasoconstriction

piloerection…. Hair

stands up, traps air,

holds heat


Skin cross section l.jpg
Skin, cross section ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm


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  • Brown fat ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm – used as a heat source in some hibernating mammals and babies

  • Nonshivering thermomgenesis – food energy is converted to heat instead of ATP

  • Other behaviors – panting, huddling, nocturnal activity, burrowing


Harbor seal sunning l.jpg
Harbor seal sunning ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm


Figure 44 7x behavioral adaptation for thermoregulation l.jpg
Figure 44.7x Behavioral adaptation for thermoregulation ambient (environmental) temperature in an ectotherm and an endotherm


The thermostat function of the hypothalamus and feedback mechanisms in human thermoregulation l.jpg
The thermostat function of the hypothalamus and feedback mechanisms in human thermoregulation


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Water Balance mechanisms in human thermoregulation – keeping right amount of water in cells, blood, interstitial fluid etc. Adaptations include:

  • Waterproofing – keratnized skin, scales, skin oils

  • Kidneys conserve/excrete water

  • excretion of various nitrogen wastes require different amounts of water

  • Uric acid

  • Ammonia ( NH3 ) Urea

  • Amniote egg; internal fertilization, internal respiratory surface ( lung ) – all conserve water loss on land

  • Osmoregulation – controlling water loss and uptake in animals; ( animal cells swell/shrink )


Salt excreting glands in birds l.jpg
Salt-excreting glands in birds mechanisms in human thermoregulation

Active transport

moves salt into

Tubule ( secretion)


Nitrogen wastes are toxic and come from deaminating amino acids l.jpg
Nitrogen wastes are toxic and come from mechanisms in human thermoregulationdeaminating amino acids

  • Urea – excreted by mammals. Requires

    less water to excrete; excreted by mammals

  • Ammonia – excreted by aquatic animals.

    Requires a lot of water to excrete; is highly toxic

    Uric Acid – excreted by reptiles, insects, birds; nontoxic, requires little water to excrete


Figure 44 13 nitrogenous wastes l.jpg
Figure 44.13 mechanisms in human thermoregulationNitrogenous wastes

deamination

in Kreb’s Cycle


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  • Osmoconformers mechanisms in human thermoregulation– do not osmoregulate

  • Osmoregulators – expend a lot of energy pumping out/in water/ salt..to control their inner osmolarity. ( control is “costly” in terms of energy)


Osmoregulation in a saltwater fish l.jpg
Osmoregulation mechanisms in human thermoregulation in a saltwater fish……

Hypertonic outside

Solution – take on

Water and salt and

Conserve water in

urine


Figure 44 14b osmoregulation in a freshwater fish l.jpg
Figure 44.14b mechanisms in human thermoregulationOsmoregulation in a freshwater fish

hypotonic

by active transport


Figure 44 16 water balance in two terrestrial mammals l.jpg
Figure 44.16 Water balance in two terrestrial mammals mechanisms in human thermoregulation

Cell respiration makes

metabolic water


Figure 44 17 key functions of excretory systems an overview l.jpg
Figure 44.17 mechanisms in human thermoregulationKey functions of excretory systems: an overview

Filter – forcefully screens, is

non selective

Reabsorbs –blood takes back needed

substances ( active transport )

into the blood

Secretes - active transport into the

tubule from the blood

Excretes – sends it out the body


Planarian flame bulb l.jpg
Planarian – flame bulb mechanisms in human thermoregulation

Flame cells – mainly osmoregulate


Figure 44 19 meta nephridia of an earthworm 2 segment l.jpg
Figure 44.19 mechanisms in human thermoregulationMetanephridia of an earthworm2/ segment

Coelomic fluid


Insect malpighian tubules l.jpg
Insect malpighian tubules mechanisms in human thermoregulation

  • Produce a dry pasty waste of uric acid released from the rectum

  • Has help insects survive on land


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Rich blood supply to mechanisms in human thermoregulation

kidneys, 20% of body blood

In kidneys at all times

Urine production =

diuresis

Diuretics are drugs

that stimulate urine

production and water

loss from the body

tissues

ureter



Figure 44 23 how the human kidney concentrates urine in a juxtamedullary nephron in birds mammals l.jpg
Figure 44.23 How the human kidney concentrates urine in a juxtamedullary nephron in birds/ mammals.


Figure 44 23 how the human kidney concentrates urine getting rid of solutes and conserving water l.jpg
Figure 44.23 How the human kidney concentrates urine: getting rid of solutes and conserving water

Impermeable

to water


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Figure 44.23 How the human kidney concentrates urine: Urea and NaCl in the interstitial fluid outside of nephron help reabsorb water from filtrate to make a hyperosmotic urine.


Nervous system and hormones regulate the kidney l.jpg
Nervous system and hormones regulate the kidney and NaCl in the interstitial fluid outside of nephron help reabsorb water from filtrate to make a hyperosmotic urine.

  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) made by the hypothalamus helps conserve body water.

    (ADH - anti- urine production ) Hypothalmus has osmoreceptor cells

  • ADH causes distal tubule and collecting duct to become more permeable to water, thus, more water is reabsorbed back into blood from filtrate


Figure 44 24 hormonal control of the kidney by negative feedback circuits l.jpg
Figure 44.24 Hormonal control of the kidney by negative feedback circuits

Antidiuretic Hormone

reduces water loss

in urine, decreases

osmolarity of blood

Too much water in body


Renin angiotensin aldosterone l.jpg
Renin- Angiotensin-Aldosterone feedback circuits

  • Are secreted in response to low blood pressure.

  • Together they simulate the distal tubule to reabsorb water and Na+. This increases blood volume but does not change the osmolarity. Angiotensin alone also causes capillaries to constrict, raising blood pressure

  • Aldosterone is from the adrenal glands



Figure 44 25 a vampire bat desmodus rotundas a mammal with a unique excretory situation l.jpg
Figure 44.25 A vampire bat ( feedback circuitsDesmodus rotundas), a mammal with a unique excretory situation

Hypo-osmotic urine right after a blood meal before flight home

Hyperosmotic urine during sleep.


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