Water and electrolyte balance
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Water and Electrolyte Balance. Water. 60% - 90% of BW in most life forms 2/3 intracellular fluid 1/3 extracellular fluid plasma lymph interstitial fluid gut. Dehydration. Occurs when fluid loss exceeds intake sweating vs time Fluid lost mostly from ECF

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Water l.jpg
Water

  • 60% - 90% of BW in most life forms

  • 2/3 intracellular fluid

  • 1/3 extracellular fluid

    • plasma

    • lymph

    • interstitial fluid

    • gut


Dehydration l.jpg
Dehydration

  • Occurs when fluid loss exceeds intake

    • sweating vs time

  • Fluid lost mostly from ECF

    • decreased circulating blood volume inadequate tissue perfusion, inefficient transport of substrates to muscle, and elevated HR


Dehydration4 l.jpg

Clinical Signs

persistent elevation of HR and RR

weak pulse

poor capillary refill

muscular weakness, tremors

depression

weak pulse, staggering

muscle cramps

Treatment

IV or oral fluids and electrolytes

Dehydration


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Estimates of Fluid Loss

  • Weigh animal before and after exercise

    • 1 kg = 1 L

    • loss of 3% of BW = reduce performance

    • loss of 10% of BW = serious, possibly life threatening


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Estimates of Fluid Loss

  • Blood analysis

    • PCV and total plasma proteins

      • rise indicates dehydration

    • if PCV > 50% indicates hazardous fluid loss


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Detecting Dehydration

  • Skin pinch test

    • falls back instantly - normal

    • 2 - 4 sec - moderate

    • 4 -6 sec - severe

  • Capillary refill

    • press finger on gums above an upper tooth

      • if it takes longer than 2 seconds for blood to return - dehydration


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Electrolytes

  • Salt that dissociates in solution into electrically charged particles (ions)

    • cations - positive charge

    • anions - negative charge

  • Function in fluid balance, transmission of nerve impulses, and muscular activity


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Electrolytes

  • Na, K, Cl

    • ICF predominate cation is K

    • ECF predominate cation is Na

    • determines water distribution between compartments


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Electrolyte Replacement

  • Sweat is hypertonic

    • 100 mEq Na:30 mEq K: 130 mEq Cl

    • small amounts of Ca, Mg, and Zn also lost

    • Electrolyte loss is easily replaced by dietary means if sweat is sparse or infrequent


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Electrolyte Replacement

  • Electrolyte supplementation recommended if sweating is frequent

    • also in hot and humid weather

  • Dietary electrolytes should replace ions lost in sweat in correct proportions

    • water or feed


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Dietary Considerations

  • Type of hay

    • legume vs grass

  • DCAD - dietary cation anion balance

    • strong and weak cations vs anions


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Cations

Na+

K+

Ca2+

Mg2+

Anions

Cl-

SO42-

lactic acid

Strong Ions


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Na/K ATPase Pump

Lehninger, 1993


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Stewart (1981)

  • Concept of electrolytes as critical factors in acid/base balance

  • Strong ion difference (SID)

    • sum of all strong cations minus sum of all strong anions (NA, K, CL, SO42-)

    • anions greater = negative SID = H+ > OH-

    • cations greater = positive SID = OH- > H+


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Stewart (1981)

  • Balance of SID is maintained by the dissociation and reassociation of water


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H+ = Dependent Variable

  • Three independent variables determine the value of H+:

    • SID

    • Pco2

      • H increases as Pco2 increases

        • CO2 acts as an acid

    • Total concentration of weak acids (plasma proteins)

      • H increases as weak acids increase


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Long Term

Kidney

regulates electrolytes

primarily Na

GI tract

absorption of cations and anions

dependent of needs

Rapid

Lung

releases CO2 (HCO3-)

Regulation of pH


Altering acid base balance l.jpg
Altering Acid Base Balance

  • DCAD diets

  • Sodium bicarbonate administration

    • IV vs GI

    • effect of other sodium forms

  • Furosemide


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